DMJ September 2017 Edition


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Diabetes Management Journal September 2017

Diabetes Management Journal September 2017 References

Page 5: Cancer Drug Imatinib May Slow New Onset Type 1 Diabetes

Louvet C, Szot G, Lang J et al. Tyrosine kinase inhibitors reverse type 1 diabetes in nonobese diabetic mice. Proc Natl Acad Sci 2008;105. Reported by Busko M, Cancer Drug Imatinib May Slow New-Onset Type 1 Diabetes. Medscape 2017 June 26

Page 6: Risk of Diabetic Ketoacidosis after Initiation of an SGLT2 Inhibitor

Fralick M, Schneeweiss S, Patorno E. Risk of Diabetic Ketoacidosis after initiation of an SGLT2 inhibitor. N Engl J Med 8 June 2017; 376: 2300-2302.
Isaacs M, Tonks K, Greenfield J. Euglycaemic diabetic ketoacidosis in patients using sodium-glucose co-transporter 2 inhibitors. Internal Medicine Journal Jun 2017; 701-704

Page 6: The Impact of Hypos

Khunti K, Alsifri S, Aronson R et al. Impact of hypoglycaemia on patient-reported outcomes form a global, 24 country study of 27 585 people with type 1 and insulin treated type 2 diabetes. Diabetes Research and Clinical Practice. 2017 August, Vol 130, pgs 121-129.

Page 7: Researchers Call for Paradigm Shift in Type 2 Diabetes Treatment

Researchers Call for Paradigm Shift in Type 2 Diabetes Treatment. CWRUMed360 News Releases 2017 June 20.
Ismail-Beigi F, Moghissi, E, Kosiborod M, Inzucchi SE. Shifting Paradigms in the Medical Management of Type 2 Diabetes: Reflections on Recent Cardiovascular Outcome Trials. J Gen Intern Med 2017 May 26.

Page 7: Glycaemic control and weight loss with semaglutide in type 2 diabetes

Madsbad S, Holst J. Glycaemic control and weight loss with semaglutide in type 2 diabetes. The Lancet Diabetes and Endocrinology. May 2017, Vol 5; 315-317

Pages 8-13: Type 1 diabetes and the artificial pancreas

  1. Craig ME, Twigg SM, Donaghue KC, Cheung NW, Cameron FJ, Conn J, Jenkins AJ, Silink M, for the Australian Type 1 Diabetes Guidelines Expert Advisory Group. Draft national evidence-based clinical care guidelines for type 1 diabetes in children, adolescents and adults, Australian Government Department of Health and Ageing, Canberra 2011.
  2. Atkinson MA, Maclaren NK. The pathogenesis of insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus. N Engl J Med. 1994;331(21):1428-36.
  3. American Diabetes Association. 2. Classification and Diagnosis of Diabetes. Diabetes Care. 2015;38(Supplement 1):S8-S16.
  4. Karamitsos DT. The story of insulin discovery. Diabetes Res Clin Pract. 2011;93 Suppl 1:S2-8.
  5. Tamborlane WV, Sherwin RS, Genel M, Felig P. Reduction to normal of plasma glucose in juvenile diabetes by subcutaneous administration of insulin with a portable infusion pump. N Engl J Med. 1979;300(11):573-8.
  6. Australian Institute of Health and Welfare 2012. Insulin pump use in Australia. Diabetes series no.18. Cat. no. CVD 58. Canberra: AIHW.
  7. Weisman A, Bai JW, Cardinez M, Kramer CK, Perkins BA. Effect of artificial pancreas systems on glycaemic control in patients with type 1 diabetes: a systematic review and meta-analysis of outpatient randomised controlled trials. Lancet Diabetes Endocrinol. 2017 Jul;5(7):501-512.

Pages 14-17:   Diabetes and Emotional Health

  1. Funnell MM, Anderson RM. Empowerment and self-management of diabetes. Clinical Diabetes. 2004;22(3):123-7.
  2. Speight J, Browne JL, et al. Diabetes MILES – Australia 2011 Survey Report. Diabetes Australia – Vic, Melbourne: 2011.
  3. Jones A, Vallis M, et al. If it does not significantly change HbA1c levels why should we waste time on it? A plea for the prioritization of psychological well-being in people with diabetes. Diabetic Medicine. 2015;32(2):155-63.
  4. Davies M, Dempster M, et al. Do people with diabetes who need to talk want to talk? Diabetic Medicine. 2006;23(8):917-19.
  5. Hendrieckx C, Bowden J, et al. An audit of psychological well-being in adults with type 1 diabetes. Paper presented at: Australian Diabetes Society and Australian Diabetes Educators Society Annual Scientific Meeting; 2012; Brisbane, Australia.
  6. Snoek FJ, Kersch NY, et al. Monitoring of Individual Needs in Diabetes (MIND): baseline data from the cross-national Diabetes Attitudes, Wishes, and Needs (DAWN) MIND study. Diabetes Care. 2011;34(3):601-3.
  7. Snoek FJ, Kersch NY, et al. Monitoring of Individual Needs in Diabetes (MIND)-2: follow-up data from the cross-national Diabetes Attitudes, Wishes, and Needs (DAWN) MIND study. Diabetes Care. 2012;35(11):2128-32.
  8. Malone A, Dempster M, et al. Providing psychological services for people with diabetes. Practical Diabetes International. 2005;22(7):244-8.
  9. Pouwer F, Beekman AT, et al. Nurses’ recognition and registration of depression, anxiety and diabetes-specific emotional problems in outpatients with diabetes mellitus. Patient Education and Counseling. 2006;60(2):235-40.
  10. Gonzalez JS, Fisher L, et al. Depression in diabetes: have we been missing something important? Diabetes Care. 2011;34(11):2488.
  11. Polonsky WH, Fisher L, et al. Assessing psychosocial distress in diabetes development of the Diabetes Distress Scale. Diabetes Care. 2005;28(3):626-31.
  12. Fisher L, Gonzalez JS, et al. The confusing tale of depression and distress in patients with diabetes: a call for greater clarity and precision. Diabetic Medicine. 2014;31(7):764-72.
  13. Polonsky WH. Diabetes burnout: what to do when you can't take it anymore. Virginia, USA: American Diabetes Association; 1999.
  14. Sturt J, Dennick K, et al. The detection and management of diabetes distress in people with type 1 diabetes. Current Diabetes Reports. 2015;15(11):1-14.
  15. Gonder-Frederick L. Fear of hypoglycemia: a review. Diabetic Hypoglycemia. 2013;5(3):3-11.
  16. Fear of hypoglycaemia is usually assessed with the Hypoglycaemia Fear Survey-II but there is not yet a clinically relevant cut-off point available. Data are based on mean +1SD (personal communication Linda Gonder-Frederick, 2015).
  17. Vallis M, Jones A, et al. Managing hypoglycaemia in diabetes may be more fear management than glucose management: a practical guide for diabetes care providers. Current Diabetes Reviews. 2014;10(6):364-70.
  18. Gherman A, Veresiu I, et al. Psychological insulin resistance: a critical review of the literature. Practical Diabetes International. 2011;28(3):125-8.
  19. Holmes-Truscott E, Skinner T, et al. Negative appraisals of insulin therapy are common among adults with type 2 diabetes using insulin: results from Diabetes MILES – Australia cross-sectional survey. Diabetic Medicine. 2015;32(10):1297-303.
  20. Larkin ME, Capasso VA, et al. Measuring psychological insulin resistance: barriers to insulin use. Diabetes Educator. 2008;34(3):511-7.
  21. Karter AJ, Subramanian U, et al. Barriers to insulin initiation: the translating research into action for diabetes insulin starts project. Diabetes Care. 2010;33(4):733-5.
  22. Blonde L. Easing the transition to insulin therapy in people with type 2 diabetes. Diabetes Educator. 2007;33(Suppl 7):S232-40.
  23. Funnell MM. Quality of life and insulin therapy in type 2 diabetes mellitus. Insulin. 2008;3(1):31-6.
  24. Makine C, Kar C, et al. Symptoms of depression and diabetes specific emotional distress are associated with a negative appraisal of insulin therapy in insulin-naive patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus. A study from the European Depression in Diabetes [EDID] Research Consortium. Diabetic Medicine. 2009;26(1):28-33.
  25. Lee CMY, Colagiuri R, et al. The cost of diabetes in adults in Australia. Diabetes Research and Clinical Practice. 2013;99(3): 385-90.
  26. Ho PM, Rumsfeld JS, et al. Effect of medication nonadherence on hospitalization and mortality among patients with diabetes mellitus. Archives of Internal Medicine. 2006;166(17):1836-41.
  27. Klein R, Klein BE. Relation of glycemic control to diabetic complications and health outcomes. Diabetes Care. 1998;21 (Suppl 3):C39-43.
  28. Donnelly LA, Morris AD, et al. Adherence to insulin and its association with glycaemic control in patients with type 2 diabetes. Quarterly Journal of Medicine. 2007;100(6):345-50.
  29. Brod M, Kongso JH, et al. Psychological insulin resistance: patient beliefs and implications for diabetes management. Quality of Life Research. 2009;18(1):23-32.
  30. Mezuk B, Eaton WW, et al. Depression and type 2 diabetes over the lifespan: a meta-analysis. Diabetes Care. 2008;31(12):2383-90.
  31. Roy T, Lloyd CE. Epidemiology of depression and diabetes: a systematic review. Journal of Affective Disorders. 2012;142:S8-21.
  32. Moulton CD, Pickup JC, et al. The link between depression and diabetes: the search for shared mechanisms. The Lancet Diabetes & Endocrinology. 2015;3(6):461-71.
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  34. Renn BN, Feliciano L, et al. The bidirectional relationship of depression and diabetes: a systematic review. Clinical Psychology +Review. 2011;31(8):1239-46.
  35. SANE Australia. Fact sheet 12: anxiety disorders, 2014 [cited 12 January 2015]. Available from: .
  36. Pinhas-Hamiel O, Levy-Shraga Y. Eating disorders in adolescents with type 2 and type 1 diabetes. Current Diabetes Reports. 2013;13(2):289-97.
  37. Young V, Eiser C, et al. Eating problems in adolescents with type 1 diabetes: a systematic review with meta-analysis. Diabetic Medicine. 2013;30(2):189-98.

Pages 20-21: Sarcopenia and Type 2 Diabetes

  1. National Diabetes Services Scheme report 31 March 2016
  2. Scott D, de Courten B & Ebeling PR. Sarcopenia: a potential cause and consequence of type 2 diabetes in Australia’s ageing population! Med J Aust. 2016 Oct 3;205(7):329-333.
  3. Evans W. J. What is Sarcopenia. J Gerontol a-Biol 1995;50:5–8.
  4. Wang T, Feng , Zhou J et al. Type 2 diabetes mellitus is associated with increased risks of sarcopenia and pre-sarcopenia in Chinese elderly. Sci Rep Sci Rep. 2016; 6: 38937.
  5. Cruz-Gentofte AJ, Baeyens JP, Bauer JM, Boirie Y, Cederholm T, Landi F, Martin FC, Michel JP, Rolland Y, Schneider SM, et al. Sarcopenia: European consensus on definition and diagnosis: Report of the European Working Group on Sarcopenia in Older People. Age and Ageing. 2010;39:412–423.
  6. Kim KS, Park KS, Kim MJ, et al. Type 2 diabetes is associated with low muscle mass in older adults. Geriatr Gerontol Int 2014;14:115–21.
  7. Umegaki H. Sarcopenia and diabetes: hyperglycemia is a risk factor for age-associated muscle mass and functional reduction. J Diabetes Investig 2015 Nov;6(6):623-624.
  8. Phillips SM, Chevalier S &Leidy HJ. Protein “requirements” beyond the RDA: implications for optimizing health. Appl Physiol Nutr Metab 2016; 41: 565-572.
  9. Miljkovic I, Kulpers Al, Cauley JA et al. Greater skeletal muscle fat infiltration is associated with higher all-cause and cardiovascular mortality in older men. J Gerontol A Biol Sci Med Sci 2015;70:1133-1140.
  10. Breen L & Phillips S. Skeletal muscle protein metabolism in the elderly: interventions to counteract the ‘anabolic resistance’ of ageing. Nutrition & Metabolism 2011;8:68.
  11. Food and Agriculture Organisation of the United Nations. Amino Acid Content of Foods and Biological Data on Proteins. Nutritional Study 24. Rome, Italy; 1981. Accessed July 20, 2017
  12. Rondanelli M, Klersy C, Terracol G, et al. Whey protein, amino acids, and vitamin D supplementation with physical activity increases fat-free mass and strength, functionality, and quality of life and decreases inflammation in sarcopenic elderly. Am J Clin Nutr 2016;103:830-840.

Pages 22-26: Incorporating a Diabetes Educator into a GP practice


Page 32-34: Plant-based diets for weight loss

  1. Dinu M, Abbate R, Gensini GF, Casini A, Sofi F. Vegetarian, vegan diets and multiple health outcomes: A systematic review with meta-analysis of observational studies. Crit Rev Food Sci Nutr. 2017;57(17):3640-3649. doi:10.1080/10408398.2016.1138447.
  2. Tonstad S, Butler T, Yan R, Fraser GE. Type of vegetarian diet, body weight, and prevalence of type 2 diabetes. Diabetes Care. 2009;32(5):791-6. Epub 2009 Apr 7.
  3. Appleby PN, Crowe FL, Bradbury KE, Travis RC, Key TJ. Mortality in vegetarians and comparable nonvegetarians in the United Kingdom. Am J Clin Nutr. 2016;103(1):218-230. doi:10.3945/ajcn.115.119461.
  4. Rosell M, Appleby P, Spencer E, Key T. Weight gain over 5 years in 21,966 meat-eating, fish-eating, vegetarian, and vegan men and women in EPIC-Oxford. Int J Obes (Lond). 2006;30(9):1389-96. Epub 2006 Mar 14.
  5. Barnard ND, Levin SM, Yokoyama Y. A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis of Changes in Body Weight in Clinical Trials of Vegetarian Diets. J Acad Nutr Diet. 2015;115(6):954-969. doi:10.1016/j.jand.2014.11.016.
  6. Eichelmann F, Schwingshackl L, Fedirko V, Aleksandrova K. Effect of plant-based diets on obesity-related inflammatory profiles: a systematic review and meta-analysis of intervention trials. Obes Rev. 2016;17(11):1067-1079. doi:10.1111/obr.12439.
  7. Turner-McGrievy GM, Davidson CR, Wingard EE, Wilcox S, Frongillo EA. Comparative effectiveness of plant-based diets for weight loss: A randomized controlled trial of five different diets. Nutrition. doi:10.1016/j.nut.2014.09.002.
  8. Barnard ND, Cohen J, Jenkins DJ, et al. A low-fat vegan diet improves glycemic control and cardiovascular risk factors in a randomized clinical trial in individuals with type 2 diabetes. Diabetes Care. 2006;29(8):1777-1783.
  9. Barnard ND, Cohen J, Jenkins DJ, et al. A low-fat vegan diet and a conventional diabetes diet in the treatment of type 2 diabetes: a randomized, controlled, 74-wk clinical trial. Am J Clin Nutr. 2009;89(5):1588S-1596S. Epub 2009 Apr 1.
  10. Kahleova H, Matoulek M, Malinska H, et al. Vegetarian diet improves insulin resistance and oxidative stress markers more than conventional diet in subjects with Type 2 diabetes. Diabet Med. 2011;28(5):549-59. doi: 10.1111/j.1464-5491.2010.03209.x.
  11. Slavin JL, McBurney MI, Slavin JL, et al. Dietary fiber and body weight. Nutrition. 2005;21(3):411-418. doi:10.1016/j.nut.2004.08.018.
  12. Pérez-Escamilla R, Obbagy JE, Altman JM, et al. Dietary energy density and body weight in adults and children: a systematic review. J Acad Nutr Diet. 2012;112(5):671-684. doi:10.1016/j.jand.2012.01.020.
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