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Diabetes Management Journal November 2021 References


Pandemic: DKA in T2D increased in UK

  1. Misra S, Barron E, Vamos E, Thomas S, Dhatariya K, Kar P, Young B, Khunti K, Valabhji J. Temporal trends in emergency admissions for diabetic ketoacidosis in people with diabetes in England before and during the COVID-19 pandemic: a population-based study. The Lancet Diabetes & Endocrinology. September 2, 2021. DOI: doi.org/10.1016/S2213-8587(21)00208-4
  2. Pain, C. ED admissions for type 2 diabetic ketoacidosis rise during pandemic: study. Australian Doctor, September 8, 2021. https://www.ausdoc.com.au/specialist-update/ed-admissions-type-2-diabetic-ketoacidosis-rise-during-pandemic-study

Hook worms – not all bad

  1. https://bit.ly/3hLYUH3

Danger in sitting

  1. Orlando G, Reeves ND, Boulton AJM, Ireland A, Federici G, Federici A, Haxhi J, Pugliese G, Balducci S. Sedentary behaviour is an independent predictor of diabetic foot ulcer development: An 8-year prospective study. Diabetes Research and Clinical Practice 177, 108877. July 1, 2021. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.diabres.2021.108877
  2. Gill, G. General Practice Research Review Issue 100 — 2021.

Increased morbidity and mortality in COVID-19 and diabetes

    1. Gregg EW, Sophiea MK, Weldegiorgis M. Diabetes and COVID-19: Population Impact 18 Months Into the Pandemic. Diabetes Care. 2021 Sep;44(9):1916-1923. doi: 10.2337/dci21-0001. Epub 2021 Jul 9. PMID: 34244333.


p8-12 Diabetes Remission

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  3. Evers IM, de Valk HW, Visser GHA. Risk of complications of pregnancy in women with type 1 diabetes: nationwide prospective study in the Netherlands. BMJ. 2004;328(7445):915.
  4. Balogh KN, Mayes LC, Potenza MN. Risk-taking and decision-making in youth: relationships to addiction vulnerability. Journal of behavioral addictions. 2013;2(1).
  5. Noel X. Why adolescents are at risk of misusing alcohol and gambling. Alcohol and alcoholism (Oxford, Oxfordshire). 2014;49(2):165-72.
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  7. Eaton DK, Kann L, Kinchen S, Shanklin S, Ross J, Hawkins J, et al. Youth risk behavior surveillance - United States, 2009. Morbidity and mortality weekly report Surveillance summaries (Washington, DC : 2002). 2010;59(5):1-142.
  8. Jessor R. Risk behavior in adolescence: a psychosocial framework for understanding and action. The Journal of adolescent health : official publication of the Society for Adolescent Medicine. 1991;12(8):597-605.
  9. Suris JC, Michaud PA, Akre C, Sawyer SM. Health risk behaviors in adolescents with chronic conditions. Pediatrics. 2008;122(5):e1113-8.
  10. Elliott DS. Health-Enhancing and Health-Compromising Lifestyles. In: S. G. Millstein ACP, & E. O. Nightingale editor. Promoting the Health of Adolescents: New Directions for the Twenty-First Century. New York: Oxford University Press.; 1993. p. 119-45.
  11. Frey MA, Guthrie B, Loveland-Cherry C, Park PS, Foster CM. Risky behavior and risk in adolescents with IDDM. Journal of Adolescent Health. 1997;20(1):38-45.
  12. Irwin CE MS. Risk-taking behaviors and biopsychosocial development during adolescence In: Susman El FL, Ray WJ, editor. Emotion, Cognition, Health and Development in children and adolescents. Hillsdale, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum; 1992. p. 1992:75-102.
  13. Gold MA, Gladstein J. Substance use among adolescents with diabetes mellitus: preliminary findings. The Journal of adolescent health : official publication of the Society for Adolescent Medicine. 1993;14(2):80-4.
  14. Glasgow AM, Tynan D, Schwartz R, Hicks JM, Turek J, Driscol C, et al. Alcohol and drug use in teenagers with diabetes mellitus. The Journal of adolescent health : official publication of the Society for Adolescent Medicine. 1991;12(1):11-4.
  15. Scaramuzza A, De Palma A, Mameli C, Spiri D, Santoro L, Zuccotti GV. Adolescents with type 1 diabetes and risky behaviour. Acta paediatrica (Oslo, Norway : 1992). 2010;99(8):1237-41.
  16. Martinez-Aguayo A, Araneda JC, Fernandez D, Gleisner A, Perez V, Codner E. Tobacco, alcohol, and illicit drug use in adolescents with diabetes mellitus. Pediatric diabetes. 2007;8(5):265-71.
  17. Council NHMR. Australian Alcohol Guidelines: Health Risks and Benefits. In: NHMRC, editor. 1 ed. Canberra2002.
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  19. Turner BC, Jenkins E, Kerr D, Sherwin RS, Cavan DA. The effect of evening alcohol consumption on next-morning glucose control in type 1 diabetes. Diabetes care. 2001;24(11):1888-93.
  20. Cooper H, Tekiteki A, Khanolkar M, Braatvedt G. Risk factors for recurrent admissions with diabetic ketoacidosis: a case-control observational study. Diabetic medicine : a journal of the British Diabetic Association. 2016;33(4):523-8.
  21. Bulum T, Kolaric B, Duvnjak L, Duvnjak M. Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease markers are associated with insulin resistance in type 1 diabetes. Digestive diseases and sciences. 2011;56(12):3655-63.
  22. Targher G, Pichiri I, Zoppini G, Trombetta M, Bonora E. Increased prevalence of chronic kidney disease in patients with Type 1 diabetes and non-alcoholic fatty liver. Diabetic medicine : a journal of the British Diabetic Association. 2012;29(2):220-6.
  23. Masson EA, MacFarlane IA, Priestley CJ, Wallymahmed ME, Flavell HJ. Failure to prevent nicotine addiction in young people with diabetes. Archives of disease in childhood. 1992;67(1):100-2.
  24. Shaw NJ, McClure RJ, Kerr S, Lawton K, Smith CS. Smoking in diabetic teenagers. Diabetic medicine : a journal of the British Diabetic Association. 1993;10(3):275-7.
  25. Regber S, Kelly KB. Missed opportunities-adolescents with a chronic condition (insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus) describe their cigarette-smoking trajectories and consider health risks. Acta paediatrica (Oslo, Norway : 1992). 2007;96(12):1770-6.
  26. Orchard TJ, Dorman JS, Maser RE, Becker DJ, Drash AL, Ellis D, et al. Prevalence of complications in IDDM by sex and duration. Pittsburgh Epidemiology of Diabetes Complications Study II. Diabetes. 1990;39(9):1116-24.
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  28. Hofer SE, Rosenbauer J, Grulich-Henn J, Naeke A, Frohlich-Reiterer E, Holl RW. Smoking and metabolic control in adolescents with type 1 diabetes. The Journal of pediatrics. 2009;154(1):20-3.e1.
  29. Chiodera P, Volpi R, Capretti L, Speroni G, Necchi-Ghiri S, Caffarri G, et al. Abnormal effect of cigarette smoking on pituitary hormone secretions in insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus. Clinical endocrinology. 1997;46(3):351-7.
  30. Ford ES, Newman J. Smoking and Diabetes Mellitus: Findings From 1988 Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System. Diabetes care. 1991;14(10):871-4.
  31. Gay EC, Cai Y, Gale SM, Baron A, Cruickshanks KJ, Kostraba JN, et al. Smokers with IDDM experience excess morbidity. The Colorado IDDM Registry. Diabetes care. 1992;15(8):947-52.
  32. Moy CS, LaPorte RE, Dorman JS, Songer TJ, Orchard TJ, Kuller LH, et al. Insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus mortality. The risk of cigarette smoking. Circulation. 1990;82(1):37-
  33. Ng RS, Darko DA, Hillson RM. Street drug use among young patients with Type 1 diabetes in the UK. Diabetic medicine : a journal of the British Diabetic Association. 2004;21(3):295-6.
  34. Isidro ML, Jorge S. Recreational drug abuse in patients hospitalized for diabetic ketosis or diabetic ketoacidosis. Acta diabetologica. 2013;50(2):183-7.
  35. Lee P, Greenfield JR, Gilbert K, Campbell LV. Recreational drug use in type 1 diabetes: an invisible accomplice to poor glycaemic control? Internal medicine journal. 2012;42(2):198-202.
  36. Mirzaei M, Ahmadi K, Saadat SH, Ramezani MA. INSTRUMENTS OF HIGH RISK SEXUAL BEHAVIOR ASSESSMENT: A SYSTEMATIC REVIEW. Materia Socio-Medica. 2016;28(1):46-50.
  37. Suris JC, Resnick MD, Cassuto N, Blum RW. Sexual behavior of adolescents with chronic disease and disability. The Journal of adolescent health : official publication of the Society for Adolescent Medicine. 1996;19(2):124-31.
  38. Schwarz EB, Sobota M, Charron-Prochownik D. Perceived access to contraception among adolescents with diabetes: barriers to preventing pregnancy complications. The Diabetes educator. 2010;36(3):489-94.
  39. Thurheimer J, Sereika SM, Founds S, Downs J, Charron-Prochownik D. Efficacy of the READY-Girls Program on General Risk-Taking Behaviors, Condom Use, and Sexually Transmitted Infections Among Young Adolescent Females With Type 1 Diabetes. The Diabetes educator. 2016;42(6):712-20.
  40. Australian Institute of Health and Welfare, 2016. Australia’s health 2016. Australian Government.
  41. Parker AH, S.; Purcell, R. Psychosocial assessment of young people. Australian Family Physician. 2010;39(8).
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  43. Clinical Practice Guidelines : Engaging with and assessing the adolescent patient [Internet]. Rch.org.au. 2019 Available from: https://www.rch.org.au/clinicalguide/guideline_index/Engaging_with_and_assessing_the_adolescent_patient/
  44. Smith GL, McGuinness TM. Adolescent Psychosocial Assessment: The HEEADSSS. Journal of Psychosocial Nursing and Mental Health Services. 2017;55(5):24-7.
  45. Government of Western Australia. HEADSS Adolescent Psychosocial Assessment. Child and Adolescent Health Service; 2020.
  46. Jaser SS. Psychological problems in adolescents with diabetes. Adolescent Medicine: State of the Art Reviews. 2010;1(21):138-xi.

    Footnote: Retrieval of studies: this review aims to summarise some key studies emphasising the importance of research investigating the association between T1D and risk factors. The online databases Ovid Medline, Pubmed and PsycINFO (Figure 1) were searched using Medical Subject Headings (MesH) and keywords to formulate an evidence-based overview of the topics as applied to clinical practice.

p15 – 17 The Liver Disease Link

  1. Asrani SK, Devarbhavi H, Eaton J, Kamath PS. Burden of liver diseases in the world. Journal of Hepatology (2019); 70(1): 151-171
  2. Moon AM, Singal AG, Tapper EB. Contemporary epidemiology of chronic liver disease and cirrhosis. Clinical Gastroenterology and Hepatology (2020); 18(12): 2650-2666
  3. Adams LA, Roberts SK, Strasser SI, Mahady SE, Powell E, Estes C, Razavi H, George J. Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease burden: Australia, 2019-2030. Journal of Gastroenterology and Hepatology (2020); 35(9): 1628-16350
  4. Younossi Z. Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease – a global public health perspective. Journal of Hepatology (2019); 70(3): 531-544
  5. Ludwig J., Viggiano TR, Mc DB, Gill BJOH. Nonalcoholic steatohepatitis: Mayo Clini experiences with a hitherto unnamed disease. Mayo Clinic Proc (1986); 55: 434-438
  6. Eslam M, Newsome PN, Sarin SK, Anstee QM, Targher G, Romero-Gomez M, Zelber-Sagi S, et al. A new definition for metabolic dysfunction-associated fatty liver disease: an international expert consensus statement, J Hepatology (2020); 73: 202-209
  7. Eslam M, Sanyal AJ, George J. MAFLD: A Consensus-Driven Proposed Nomenclature for Metabolic Associated Fatty Liver Disease, Gastroenterology (2020); 158: 1999-2014
  8. Eslam M, Sarin SK, Wong VW-S, Fan J-G, Kawaguchi T, Ahn SH, Zheng M-H, et al. The Asian Pacific Association for the Study of the Liver Clinical Practice Guidelines for the Diagnosis and Management of Metabolic Associated Fatty Liver Disease, Hepatology International (2020), published online.
  9. Li Jie, Zou Biyao, Yeo YH, Feng Y, Xie X, Lee DH, Fujii H, Wu Y, Kam LY, et al. Prevalence, incidence, and outcome of non-alcoholic fatty liver disease in Asia, 1999-2019: a systematic review and meta-analysis. Lancet Gastroenterol Hepatol (2019); 4(5): 389-398
  10. Calzadilla-Bertot L, Jeffrey GP, Jacques B, McCaughan G, Crawford M, Angus P, Jones R, et al. Increasing incidence of nonalcoholic steatohepatitis as an indication for liver transplantation in Australia and New Zealand. Liver Transplantation (2019); 25(1): 25-34
  11. Tilg H, Moschen AR, Roden M. NAFLD and diabetes mellitus. Nature Review Gastroenterology and Hepatology (2017); 14: 32-42
  12. Valenti L, Bugianesi E, Pajvani U, Targher G. Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease: cause or consequence of type 2 diabetes?. Liver International (2016); 36: 1563-1579
  13. Younossi ZM, Golabi P, de Avila L, Paik JM, Srishord M, Fukui N, Qiu Y, et al. The global epidemiology of NAFLD and NASH in patients with type 2 diabetes: a systematic review and meta-analysis. Journal of Hepatology (2019); 71(): 793-801
  14. Mantovani APG, Beatrice G, Tilg H, Byrne CD, Targher G. Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease and risk of incident diabetes mellitus: an updated meta-analysis of 501022 adult individuals. Gut (2021); 70: 962-969
  15. Ekstedt M, Franzén LE, Mathiesen UL, Thorelius L, Holmqvist M, Bodemar G, Kechagias S. Long-term follow-up of patients with NAFLD and elevated liver enzymes. Hepatology. 2006;44:865–873.
  16. Ye Q, Zou B, Yeo YH, Huang DQ, Wu Y, Yang H, Liu C, et al. Global Prevalence, Incidence, and Outcomes of Non-Obese or Lean Non-Alcoholic Fatty Liver Disease: A Systematic Review. Lancet Gas Hep (2020); 5: 739-752
  17. Chalasani N, Younossi Z, Lavine JE, Charlton M, Cusi K, Rinella M, Harrison SA, et al. The diagnosis and management of nonalcoholic fatty liver disease: practice guidance from the American association for the study of liver diseases. Hepatology 2018; 67: 328-357
  18. Hernaez R, Lazo M, Bonekamp S, Kamel I, Brancati FL, Guallar E, Clark JM. Diagnostic accuracy and reliability of ultrasonography for the detection of fatty liver: a meta-analysis. Hepatology 2011; 54: 1082-1090
  19. Peleg N, Issachar A, Arbib OS, Cohen-Naftaly M, Braun M, Leshno M, Barsheshet A, et al. Liver steatosis is a strong predictor of mortality and cancer in chronic hepatitis B regardless of viral load, JHep Rep 2019; 1: 9-16
  20. Sterling RK, Lissen E, Clumeck N, Sola R, Correa MC, Montaner J, et al. Development of a simple noninvasive index to predict significant fibrosis in patients with HIV/HCV coinfection. Hepatology 2006; 43: 1317-1325
  21. Angulo P, Hui JM, Marchesini G, Bugianesi E, George J, Farrell GC, et al. The NAFLD fibrosis score: a noninvasive system that identifies liver fibrosis in patients with NAFLD. Hepatology 2007; 45: 846-854
  22. Cassinotto C, Boursier J, de Ledinghen V, Lebigot J, Lapuyade B, Cales P, et al. Liver stiffness in nonalcoholic fatty liver disease: a comparison of supersonic shear imaging, Fibroscan, and ARFI with liver biopsy. Hepatology 2016; 63(6): 1817-1827
  23. Xiao G, Zhu S, Xiao X, Yan L, Yang J, Wu G. Comparison of laboratory tests, ultrasound, or magnetic resonance elastography to detect fibrosis in patients with nonalcoholic fatty liver disease: a meta-analysis. Hepatology 2017; 66*5): 1486-1501
  24. Kaya E, Bakir A, Kani HT, Demirtas CO, Keklikkiran C, Yilmaz Y. Simple non-invasive scores are clinically useful to exclude, not predict, advanced fibrosis: a study in Turkish patients with biopsy-proven non-alcoholic fatty liver disease. Gut Liver 2019
  25. Jafarov F, Kaya E, Bakir A, Eren F, Ylimaz Y. The diagnostic utility of fibrosis-4 or nonalcoholic fatty liver disease fibrosis score combined with liver stiffness measurement by fibroscan in assessment of advanced liver fibrosis: a biopsy proven non-alcoholic fatty liver disease study. Eur J Gastroenterol Hepatol 2020; 32: 642-649
  26. Ampuero J, Aller R, Gallego-Duran R, Banales JM, Crespo J, Garcia-Monzon C, Pareja MJ, et al. The effects of metabolic status on non-alcoholic fatty liver disease-related outcomes, beyond the presence of obesity. Aliment Pharmacol Ther (2018); 48: 1260-1270
  27. Targher G, Bertolini L, Rodella S, Tessari R, Zenari L, Lippi G, Arcaro G. Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease is independently associated with an increased incidence of cardiovascular events in type 2 diabetic patients. Diabetes Care (2007); 30(8): 2119-2121
  28. Tang W, Xu Q, Hong T, Tong G, Feng W, Shen S, Bi Y, et al. Comparative efficacy of anti-diabetic agents on non-alcoholic fatty liver disease in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus: a systematic review and meta-analysis of randomised and non-randomised studies. Diabetes Metab Res Rev (2016); 32: 200-216
  29. Newsome P, Buchholtz K, Cusi K, Linder M, Okanoue T, Ratziu V, Sanyal AJ, Sejling A-S, Harrison SA. A placebo-controlled trial of subcutaneous semaglutide in nonalcoholic steatohepatitis. New England Journal of Medicine (2021); 384: 1113-1124
  30. Vilar-Gomez E, Calzadilla-Bertot L, Wong VW-S, Castellanos M, de la Fuente RA, Eslam M, Wong GL-H, George J, et al. Type 2 diabetes and metformin use associate with outcomes of patients with nonalcoholic steatohepatitis-related, Child-Pugh A cirrhosis. Clinical Gastroenterology and Hepatology (2020); 19(1): 136-145
  31. Tombetta M, Spiazzi G, Zoppini G, Muggeo M. Review article: type 2 diabetes and chronic liver disease in the Verona diabetes study. Alimentary Pharmacology Therapy (2005); 22(S2): 24-27
  32. Mehta SH, Brancati FL, Sulkowski MS, Strathdee SA, Szklo M, Thomas DL. Prevalence of type 2 diabetes mellitus among persons with hepatitis C virus infection in the United States. Annals of Internal Medicine (2000); 133: 592-599
  33. Knobler H, chihmanter R, Zifroni A, Fenakel G, Schattner A. Increased risk of type 2 diabetes in noncirrhotic patients with chronic hepatitis C virus infection. Mayo Clin Proc (2000); 75: 355-359
  34. Hui, JM, Sud A, Farrell GC, Bandara P, Byth K, Kench JG, McCaughan GW, George J. Insulin resistance is associated with chronic hepatitis C and virus infection fibrosis progression. Gastroenterology (2003); 125: 1695-1704
  35. Milner K-L, Van Der Poorten D, Trenell M, Jenkins AB, Xu A, Smythe G, Dore GJ, Zekry A, Weltman M, Fragomeli V, George J, Chisolm DJ. Chronic hepatitis C is associated with peripheral rather than hepatic insulin resistance. Gastroenterology (2010); 138: 932-941
  36. Milner K-L, Jenkin AB, Trenell M, Tid-Ang J, Samocha-Bonet D, Weltman M, Xu A, George J, Chisholm DJ. Eradicating hepatitis C virus ameliorates insulin resistance without change in adipose depots. Journal of Viral Hepatitis (2013); 21(5): 325-332
  37. Romero-Gomez M. Insulin resistance and hepatitis C. World Journal of Gastroenterology (2006); 12(44): 7075-7080
  38. Alsebaey A, Elhelbawy M, Abdel-Razek W, Hashim M, Elshenawy H, Waked I. HCV treatment with direct acting antivirals improves the insulin sensitivity. Expert Review Anti Infect Ther (2019); 17(9): 749-754
  39. Elhelbawy M, Abdel-Razek W, Alsebaey A, Hashim M, Elshenawy H, Waked I. Insulin resistance does not impair response of chronic hepatitis C virus to direct-acting antivirals, and improves with the treatment. Eur J Gastroenterol Hepatol (2019); 31(1): 16-23
  40. Wei M, Gibbons LW, Mitchell TL, Kampert JB, Blair SN. Alcohol intake and incidence of type 2 diabetes in men. Diabetes Care (2000); 3: 18-22
  41. Nishida T, Tsuji S, Tsuji M, Arimitsu S, Haruna Y, Imano E, Suzuki M, Kanda T, Kawano S, Hiramatsu N, et al. Oral glucose tolerance test predicts prognosis of patients with liver cirrhosis. Americal Journal of Gastroenterology (2006); 101: 70-75
  42. Lawson DH, Gray JM, McKillop C. Diabetes mellitus and primary hepatocellular carcinoma. Q J Med (1986); 61: 945-955
  43. Jinjuvadia R, Patel S, Liangpunsakul S. The association between metabolic syndrome and hepatocellular carcinoma: systemic review and meta-analysis. Journal Clinical Gastroenterology (2014); 48(2)
  44. Wang C, Wang X, Gong G, Ben Q, Qiu W, Chen Y, Li G, Wang L. Increased risk of hepatocellular carcinoma in patients with diabetes mellitus: a systematic review and meta-analysis of cohort studies, International Journal of Cancer (2012); 130(7): 1639-1648
  45. Moore MA, Park CB, Tsuda H. Implications of the hyperinsulinaemia-diabetes-cancer link for preventative efforts. Euro J Can Prev (1998); 7:89-107
  46. Chen C-L, Yang H-I, Yang W-S, Liu C-J, Chen P-J, You S-L, Wang L-Y, et al. Metabolic factors and risk of hepatocellular carcinoma by chronic hepatitis B/C infection: a follow-up study in Taiwan. Gastroenterology (2008); 135(1): 111-121
  47. Hassan MM, Hwang L-Y, Hatten CJ. Risk factors for hepatocellular carcinoma: synergism of alcohol with viral hepatitis and diabetes mellitus. Hepatology (2002); 36(5): 1206-1213
  48. Seki Y, Kakizaki S, Horiguchi N, Hashizume H, Tojima H, Yamazaki Y, Sato K, et al. Prevalence of non-alcoholic steatohepatitis in Japanese patients with morbid obesity undergoing bariatric surgery. J Gastroenterol 2016; 51: 281-289
  49. Singh S, Allen AM, Wang Z, Prokop LJ, Murad MH, Loomba R. Fibrosis progression in nonalcoholic fatty liver vs nonalcoholic steatohepatitis: a systematic review and meta-analysis of paired-biopsy studies. Clin Gastroenterol Hepatol (2015);13: 643-654

p21-23 I Wish I Had Known Earlier

  1. https://bit.ly/CGMT1D
  2. https://bit.ly/T1Dphysical
  3. https://bit.ly/DrivingNDSS
  4. https://nhmrc.gov.au/alcohol
  5. https://bit.ly/SafeDrinkingGuide
  6. https://bit.ly/T1DalcoholNDSS
  7. https://www.healthdirect.gov.au/safesex
  8. https://www.healthdirect.gov.au/stis-screening-tests
  9. https://bit.ly/T1DpregancyCGM
  10. https://bit.ly/HealthyBabyWithT1D
  11. https://bit.ly/DrugsT1D

p24-26 The Polypill Puzzle

  1. Eiber, H. B. (1955). COMBINED CHLORPROMAZINE-RAUWOLFIA SERPENTINA THERAPY IN ESSENTIAL HYPERTENSION: PRELIMINARY REPORT. Journal of the American Medical Association, 158(9), 730–731. https://doi.org/10.1001/JAMA.1955.02960090024005C
  2. Wofford, J. L. (1997). History of Fixed-Dose Combination Therapy for Hypertension. Archives of Internal Medicine, 157(9), 1044–1044. https://doi.org/10.1001/ARCHINTE.1997.00440300166021
  3. Gadzhanova, S., Gillies, M., Roughead, E., & Zuo, Y. (2011). RACGP - Fixed dose combination diabetes medicines. Australian Family Physician, 40(10), 811–815. https://www.racgp.org.au/afp/2011/october/fixed-dose-combination-diabetes-medicines/
  4. Böhm, A.-K., Schneider, U., Aberle, J., & Stargardt, T. (2021). Regimen simplification and medication adherence: Fixed-dose versus loose-dose combination therapy for type 2 diabetes. PloS One, 16(5). https://doi.org/10.1371/JOURNAL.PONE.0250993
  5. Phung, O. J., Sobieraj, D. M., Engel, S. S., & Rajpathak, S. N. (2014). Early combination therapy for the treatment of type 2 diabetes mellitus: systematic review and meta-analysis. Diabetes, Obesity and Metabolism, 16(5), 410–417. https://doi.org/10.1111/DOM.12233
  6. Laiteerapong, N., Ham, S. A., Gao, Y., Moffet, H. H., Liu, J. Y., Huang, E. S., & Karter, A. J. (2019). The Legacy Effect in Type 2 Diabetes: Impact of Early Glycemic Control on Future Complications (The Diabetes & Aging Study). Diabetes Care, 42(3), 416–426. https://doi.org/10.2337/DC17-1144
  7. Andreozzi, F., Candido, R., Corrao, S., Fornengo, R., Giancaterini, A., Ponzani, P., Ponziani, M. C., Tuccinardi, F., & Mannino, D. (2020). Clinical inertia is the enemy of therapeutic success in the management of diabetes and its complications: A narrative literature review. Diabetology and Metabolic Syndrome, 12(1). https://doi.org/10.1186/S13098-020-00559-7
  8. Davies, M. J., D’Alessio, D. A., Fradkin, J., Kernan, W. N., Mathieu, C., Mingrone, G., Rossing, P., Tsapas, A., Wexler, D. J., & Buse, J. B. (2018). Management of hyperglycemia in type 2 diabetes, 2018. A consensus report by the American Diabetes Association (ADA) and the european association for the study of diabetes (EASD). Diabetes Care, 41(12), 2669–2701. https://doi.org/10.2337/DCI18-0033
  9. Mata-Cases, M., Franch-Nadal, J., Real, J., Gratacòs, M., López-Simarro, F., Khunti, K., & Mauricio, D. (2018). Therapeutic inertia in patients treated with two or more antidiabetics in primary care: Factors predicting intensification of treatment. Diabetes, Obesity and Metabolism, 20(1), 103–112. https://doi.org/10.1111/DOM.13045
  10. Singh, A. K., Singh, R., & Chakraborty, P. P. (2021). Diabetes Monotherapies versus Metformin-Based Combination Therapy for the Treatment of Type 2 Diabetes. International Journal of General Medicine, 14, 3833–3848. https://doi.org/10.2147/IJGM.S295459
  11. RACGP, & Diabetes Australia. (2020). Management of type 2 diabetes: A handbook for general practice. http://www.racgp.org/
  12. Matthews, D. R., Paldánius, P. M., Proot, P., Chiang, Y. T., Stumvoll, M., & del Prato, S. (2019). Glycaemic durability of an early combination therapy with vildagliptin and metformin versus sequential metformin monotherapy in newly diagnosed type 2 diabetes (VERIFY): a 5-year, multicentre, randomised, double-blind trial. The Lancet394(10208), 1519–1529. https://doi.org/10.1016/S0140-6736(19)32131-2
  13. Mosenzon, O., & Leibowitz, G. (2019). VERIFY the role of initial combination therapy in patients with type 2 diabetes. The Lancet. https://doi.org/10.1016/S0140-6736(19)32165-8
  14. Bailey, C. J., & Day, C. (2009). Fixed-dose single tablet antidiabetic combinations. Diabetes, Obesity and Metabolism, 11(6), 527–533. https://doi.org/10.1111/J.1463-1326.2008.00993
  15. Katsiki, N., Ofori-Asenso, R., Ferrannini, E., & Mazidi, M. (2020). Fixed-dose combination of empagliflozin and linagliptin for the treatment of patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus: A systematic review and meta-analysis. Diabetes, Obesity and Metabolism, 22(6), 1001–1005. https://doi.org/10.1111/DOM.13989
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p24-26 Monogenic diabetes diagnosis and management

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p32 – 34 Food Stuff: How to Identify and Refer People with T2D and Disordered Eating or Eating Disorders

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