Diabetes Management Journal FEBRUARY 2018 digital edition

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Diabetes Management Journal FEBRUARY 2018

Diabetes Management Journal February 2018 References

 

NEWS & VIEWS REFERENCES

  1. Lean M et al.Primary care-led weight management for remission of type 2 diabetes (DiRECT): an open-label, cluster-randomised trial. Lancet, Dec 2017.
  2. Botha S, et al. The effect of non-surgical weight management on weight and glycaemic control in people with type 2 diabetes: a comparison of interventional and non-interventional outcomes at three years. Diabetes Obes Metab, Jan 2018
  3. Park F, et al. Epidemic of large babies highlighted by use of INTERGROWTH21st international standard. Aust N Z J Obstet Gynaecol, Dec 2017
  4. Pharmaceutical Benefits Advisory Committee. November 2017 – Positive Recommendations. Available at http://www.pbs.gov.au/industry/listing/elements/pbac-meetings/pbac-outcomes/2017-11/positive-recommendations-11-2017.pdf
  5. Medicare Benefits Schedule Review Taskforce. First Report from the Pathology Clinical Committee – Endocrine Tests 2017.
  6. Wei C , et al. Cognitive behavioural therapy stabilises glycaemic control in adolescents with type 1 diabetes—Outcomes from a randomised control trial, Pediatr Diabetes, 2018;19:106
  7. Becker C, et al. Cataract in patients with diabetes mellitus—incidence rates in the UK and risk factors. Eye; Royal College of Ophthalmologists, Feb 2018
  8. NHMRC Guidelines for the Management of Diabetic Retinopathy. Prepared by the Australian Diabetes Society for the Department of Health and Ageing, 2008. Available at www.nhmrc.gov.au/_files_nhmrc/publications/attachments/di15.pdf

p7. CGM good for mothers and babies:

  1. Ref. 1. Feig D, et al. Continuous glucose monitoring in pregnant women with type 1 diabetes (CONCEPTT): a multicentre international randomised controlled trial. The Lancet 390;10110,2347-2359, Nov 2017.

p8-12 Diabetic Retinopathy:

  1. Silva PS, Cavallerano JD, Sun JK, Soliman AZ, Aiello LM, Aiello LP. Peripheral lesions identified by mydriatic ultrawide field imaging: distribution and potential impact on diabetic retinopathy severity. Ophthalmology 2013; 120: 2587–95.
  2. Gulshan V, Peng L, Coram M, et al. Development and Validation of a Deep Learning Algorithm for Detection of Diabetic Retinopathy in Retinal Fundus Photographs. JAMA. 2016 Dec 13;316(22):2402-2410.
  3. Liew G, Michaelides M, Bunce C. A comparison of the causes of blindness certifications in England and Wales in working age adults (16-64 years), 1999-2000 with 2009-2010. BMJ Open. 2014 Feb 12;4(2):e004015.
  4. The Diabetic Retinopathy Study Research Group. Photocoagulation treatment of proliferative diabetic retinopathy. Clinical application of Diabetic Retinopathy Study (DRS) findings, DRS Report Number 8. Ophthalmology. 1981 Jul;88(7):583-600.
  5. Bressler SB, Beaulieu WT, Glassman AR. Factors Associated with Worsening Proliferative Diabetic Retinopathy in Eyes Treated with Panretinal Photocoagulation or Ranibizumab. Ophthalmology. 2017 Apr;124(4):431-439.
  6. Sivaprasad S, Prevost AT, Vasconcelos JC, et al. Clinical efficacy of intravitreal aflibercept versus panretinal photocoagulation for best corrected visual acuity in patients with proliferative diabetic retinopathy at 52 weeks (CLARITY): a multicentre, single-blinded, randomised, controlled, phase 2b, non-inferiority trial. Lancet. 2017 Jun 3;389(10085):2193-2203.
  7. Nguyen QD, Brown DM, Marcus DM, et al. Ranibizumab for diabetic macular edema: results from 2 phase III randomized trials: RISE and RIDE. Ophthalmology 2012;119:789-801.
  8. Mitchell P, Bandello F, Schmidt-Erfurth U, et al. The RESTORE Study: Ranibizumab Monotherapy or Combined with Laser versus Laser Monotherapy for Diabetic Macular Edema. Ophthalmology 2011;118:615-625.
  9. Korobelnik JF, Do DV, Schmidt-Erfurth U, et al. Intravitreal aflibercept for diabetic macular edema. Ophthalmology 2014;121:2247-2254.
  10. Wells JA, Glassman AR, Ayala AR, et al. Aflibercept, bevacizumab, or ranibizumab for diabetic macular edema. N Engl J Med 2015;372:1193-1203.
  11. Elman MJ, Aiello LP, Beck RW, et al. Randomized trial evaluating ranibizumab plus prompt or deferred laser or triamcinolone plus prompt laser for diabetic macular edema. Ophthalmology 2010;117:1064-1077
  12. Boyer DS, Yoon YH, Belfort R Jr, et al. Three-year, randomized, sham-controlled trial of dexamethasone intravitreal implant in patients with diabetic macular edema. Ophthalmology 2014;121:1904-1914.
  13. Davis MD, Fisher MR, Gangnon RE, et al. Risk factors for high-risk proliferative diabetic retinopathy and severe visual loss: Early Treatment Diabetic Retinopathy Study Report #18. Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci 1998;39:233-252.
  14. Rodriguez-Fontal M, Kerrison JB, Alfaro DV, Jablon EP. Metabolic control and diabetic retinopathy. Curr Diabetes Rev 2009;5:3-7.
  15. Diabetes Control and Complications Trial Research Group. Progression of retinopathy with intensive versus conventional treatment in the Diabetes Control and Complications Trial. Ophthalmology 1995;102:647-661.
  16. UK Prospective Diabetes Study (UKPDS) Group. Intensive blood-glucose control with sulphonylureas or insulin compared with conventional treatment and risk of complications in patients with type 2 diabetes (UKPDS 33). Lancet 1998;352:837-853.
  17. Keech AC, Mitchell P, Summanen PA, et al. Effect of fenofibrate on the need for laser treatment for diabetic retinopathy (FIELD study): a randomised controlled trial. Lancet. 2007 Nov 17;370(9600):1687-97.
  18. ACCORD Study Group, et al. Effects of medical therapies on retinopathy progression in type 2 diabetes. N Engl J Med. 2010 Jul 15;363(3):233-44.

p14-16 Sleep Apnoea and Diabetes:

  1. Kent B, McNicholas W, Ryan S. Insulin resistance, glucose intolerance and diabetes mellitus in obstructive sleep apnoea. J Thorac Dis 2015;7(8):1343-1357.
  2. Romero-Corral A, Caples S, Lopez-Jimenez F et al. Interactions between obesity and obstructive sleep apnea. Chest 2010; 137(3):711-719.
  3. Olson LG, King MT, Hensley MJ et al. A community study of snoring and sleep-disordered breathing. Prevalence. Am J Respir Crit Care Med 1995;152:711-716.
  4. Australian Bureau of Statistics. National Health Survey 2014-15 [website]. http://www.abs.gov.au/ausstats/abs@.nsf/Lookup/by%20Subject/4364.0.55 (accessed 10th September 2017).
  5. Pamidi S, Tasali E. Obstructive sleep apnea and type 2 diabetes: is there a link? Fneur 2012;3(126)1-13.
  6. Attal P, Chanson P. Endocrine aspects of obstructive sleep apnea. J Clin Endocrinol Metab 2010;95(2):483-495.
  7. Berry R. Fundamentals of sleep medicine. Philadelphia: Elsevier, 2012 281-298.
  8. Nannapaneni S, Ramar K, Surani S. Effect of obstructive sleep apnea on type 2 diabetes mellitus: A comprehensive literature review. WJD 2013;4(6): 238-244.
  9. Gasa M, Salord N, Fortuna A, Mayos M et al. Obstructive sleep apnoea and metabolic impairment in severe obesity. Eur Respir J 2011;38(5): 1089-1097.
  10. Peppard P, Young T, Palta M et al. N Engl J Med 2000; 342:1378-1384.
  11. The Royal Australian College of General Practitioners. Guidelines for preventive activities in general practice. 9th edn. East Melbourne, Vic: RACGP, 2016
  12. Zimmet P, Alberti G. The IDF consensus statement on sleep apnoea and type 2 diabetes. International Diabetes Federation. Brussels. 2008 1-23.
  13. Eckert D, Younes M. Arousal from sleep: implications for obstructive sleep apnoea pathogenesis and treatment. J Appl Phyisol 2014;116:302-313.

p18-20 What’s so smart about ‘smart’ meters?

  1. UK Prospective Diabetes Study Group, Intensive blood-glucose control with suphonylureas or insulin compared with conventional treatment and risk of complications in patients with type 2 diabetes (UKPDS 33). Lancet. 1998:352(9131):857-53
  2. "Glucose Meter." Wikipedia. Wikipedia.org, 31 Aug. 2017, https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Glucose_meter. Accessed 3 October 2017.
  3. Cryer PE. Hypoglycaemia: pathophysiology, diagnosis and treatment. New York: Oxford University Press 1997
  4. Sussman A, Taylor EJ, Patel M, et al. Performance of a glucose meter with a built-in automated bolus calculator versus manual bolus calculation in insulin-using subjects. J Diabetes Sci Technol 2012; 6: 339-344.
  5. Niel JV, Geelhoed-Duijvestijn PH; Dutch Insulinx Study Group. Use of a smart glucose monitoring system to guide insulin dosing in patients with diabetes in regular clinical practice. J Diabetes Sci Technol 2014; 8: 188-189.
  6. Ziegler R, Cavan DA, Cranston I, et al. Use of an insulin bolus advisor improves glycemic control in multiple daily insulin injection (MDI) therapy patients with suboptimal glycemic control: first results from the ABACUS trial. Diabetes Care 2013; 36: 3613-3619.
  7. Barnard K, Parkin C, Young A, Ashraf M. Use of an automated bolus calculator reduces fear of hypoglycemia and improves confidence in dosage accuracy in patients with type 1 diabetes mellitus treated with multiple daily insulin injections. J Diabetes Sci Technol 2012; 6: 144-149.
  8. Quinn CC, Clough SS, Minor JM, Lender D, Okafor MC, Gruber-Baldini A. WellDoc mobile diabetes management randomized controlled trial: change in clinical and behavioral outcomes and patient and physician satisfaction. Diabetes Technol Ther 2008; 10: 160-168. doi: 10.1089/dia.2008.0283.
  9. NM Farandos; AK Yetisen; MJ Monteiro; CR Lowe; SH Yun (2014). "Contact Lens Sensors in Ocular NM Farandos; AK Yetisen; MJ Monteiro; CR Lowe; SH Yun (2014). "Contact Lens Sensors in Ocular Diagnostics."Advanced Healthcare Materials. 4:792 810.  PMID25400274doi:.

p22-24 How to get them off the couch:

  1. Haskell WL, Lee IM, Pate RR, et al. Physical activity and public health: updated recommendation for adults from the American college of sports medicine and the American heart association. Circulation 2007;116:1081–1093.
  2. Marwick TH, Hordern MD, Miller T, et al. Exercise training for type 2 diabetes mellitus: impact on cardiovascular risk: a scientific statement from the American heart association. Circulation 2009;119:3244–3262.
  3. Snowling NJ, Hopkins WG. Effects of different modes of exercise training on glucose control and risk factors for complications in type 2 diabetic patients: a meta-analysis. Diabetes Care 2006;29:2518–2527.<
  4. Pan XR, Li GW, Hu YH, et al. Effects of diet and exercise in preventing niddm in people with impaired glucose tolerance, the Da Qing IGT and diabetes study. Diabetes Care 1997;20:537–544.
  5. Knowler WC, Barrett-Connor E, Fowler SE, et al. Reduction in the incidence of type 2 diabetes with lifestyle intervention or metformin. N Engl J Med 2002;346:393–403.
  6. Lindstrom J, Ilanne-Parikka P, Peltonen M, et al. Sustained reduction in the incidence of type 2 diabetes by lifestyle intervention: follow-up of the Finnish diabetes prevention study. Lancet 2006;368:1673–1679.
  7. Li G, Zhang P, Wang J, et al. The long-term effect of lifestyle interventions to prevent diabetes in the China Da Qing diabetes prevention study: a 20-year follow-up study. Lancet 2008;371:1783–1789.
  8. Sigal RJ, Kenny GP, Boule NG, et al. Effects of aerobic training, resistance training, or both on glycemic control in type 2 diabetes: a randomized trial. Ann Intern Med 2007;147:357–369.
  9. Church TS, Blair SN, Cocreham S, et al. Effects of aerobic resistance training on hemoglobin a1c levels in patients with type 2 diabetes: a randomized controlled trial. JAMA 2010;304:2253–226
  10. Dunstan DW, Puddey IB, Beilin LJ, et al. Effects of a short-term circuit weight training program on glycaemic control in NIDDM. Diabetes Res Clin Pract 1998;40:53–61.
  11. Brown W, Bauman A, Bull F and Burton N. Development of evidence-based physical activity recommendations for adults (18-64 years). 2013. Available at URL http://www.health.gov.au/internet/main/publishing.nsf/Content/health-pubhlth-strateg-phys-act-guidelines/$File/DEB-PAR-Adults-18-64years.pdf Accessed September 2017.
  12. Exercise prescription for patients with type 2 diabetes and pre-diabetes: a position statement from Exercise and Sport Science Australia. Journal of Science and Medicine in Sport 2012(15):25-31.
  13. Neville L, Bauman A. Self-reported risk factors and management strategies used by people with diabetes mellitus identified from the 1997 and 1998 NSW Health Surveys. NSW Public Health Bulletin. 2004; 15(4): 57-62.
  14. Healy GN, Wijndaele K, Dunstan DW, et al. Objectively measured sedentary time, physical activity, and metabolic risk: the Australian Diabetes, Obesity and Lifestyle Study (AusDiab). Diabetes Care. 2008;31:369–71.
  15. Van der Berg J, Koster A & Stehouwer. Sedentary Behaviour: a new target in the prevention and management of diabetes. European Medical Journal 2016;1(4):12-17.
  16. Lee IM, Shiroma EJ, Lobelo F, et al. Effect of physical inactivity on major non-communicable diseases worldwide: an analysis of burden of disease and life expectancy. Lancet. 2012;380:219–29.
  17. Matthews CE et al. Amount of time spent in sedentary behaviors in the United States, 2003-2004. Am J Epidemiol 2008;167(7):875-81.
  18. Colley RC, Garriguet D, Janssen I, et al. Physical activity of Canadian adults: accelerometer results from the 2007 to 2009 Canadian Health Measures Survey. Health Rep. 2011;22:7–14.
  19. Hagstromer M, Troiano RP, Sjostrom M, et al. Levels and patterns of objectively assessed physical activity—a comparison between Sweden and the United States. Am J Epidemiol. 2010;171:1055–64.
  20. Dempsey P, Owen N, Biddle S & Dunstan D. Managing sedentary behaviour to reduce the risk of diabetes and cardiovascular disease. Curr Diab Rep 2014;14:522.
  21. Hu FB et al. Physical activity and television watching in relation to risk for type 2 diabetes mellitus in men. Arch Intern Med. 2001;161(12):1542-1548.
  22. Cooper AR et al. Sedentary time, breaks in sedentary time and metabolic variables in people with newly diagnosed type 2 diabetes. Diabetologia. 2012;55(3): 589-99.
  23. Cooper AJ et al. Association between objectively assessed sedentary time and physical activity with metabolic risk factors among people with recently diagnosed type 2 diabetes. Diabetologia. 2014;57(1):73-82.
  24. Milton MT et al. Sedentary behavior as a mediator of type 2 diabetes. MedSport Sci. 2014;60:11-26.
  25. Thosar SS et al. Sitting and endothelial dysfunction: the role of shear stress. Med Sci Monit. 2012;18(12):RA173-80.
  26. Falconer CL et al. Sedentary time and markers of in ammation in people with newly diagnosed type 2 diabetes. Nutr Metab Cardiovasc Dis. 2014;24(9):956-62.
  27. Tudor-Locke C, Bell RC, Myers AM, et al. Controlled outcome evaluation of the First Step Program: a daily physical activity intervention for individuals with type II diabetes. Int J Obes Relat Metab Disord 2004;28:113–9.
  28. Richardson C & Schwenk T. Helping sedentary patients become more active: a practical guide for the primary care physician. JCOM 2007;14(3):161-163.

p25-27 Pre-pregnancy planning and care for women with diabetes

  1. Australian Institute of Health and Welfare 2016. Australia’s mothers and babies 2014—in brief. Perinatal statistics series no. 32. Cat no. PER 87. Canberra: AIHW.
  2. Abouzeid, M, Versace, VL, Janus, ED, Davey, M, Philpot, B, Oats, J, Dunbar, JA. A population-based observational study of diabetes during pregnancy in Victoria, Australia, 1999–2008. BMJ Open 2014;4:e005394. doi:10.1136/bmjopen-2014-005394.
  3. Cheung, N, McElduff, A, Ross, G (2005) Type 2 diabetes in pregnancy: a wolf in sheep's clothing. Aust N Z J Obstet Gynaecol. 45(6): p. 479-83.
  4. Temple RC, Murphy H. Type 2 diabetes in pregnancy - an increasing problem (2010) Best Pract Res Clin Endocrinol Metab. 24:591– 603.
  5. Macintosh MCFleming KMBailey JA et al (2006) Perinatal mortality and congenital anomalies in babies of women with type 1 or type 2 diabetes in England, Wales, and Northern Ireland: population based study BMJ Jul 22; 333 (7560):177.
  6. Dunne FPAvalos GDurkan M et al (2009) ATLANTIC DIP: pregnancy outcome for women with pregestational diabetes along the Irish Atlantic seaboard Diabetes Care Jul; 32(7):1205-6.
  7. Kitzmiller, JL, Wallerstein, R, Correa, A, Kwan, S (2010) Preconception Care for Women with Diabetes and Prevention of Major Congenital Malformations Birth Defects Research (Part A) 88:791-803.
  8. Australian Institute of Health and Welfare (2010) Diabetes in pregnancy: its impact on Australian women and their babiesAIHW: Canberra
  9. Nielsen GL, Moller M, Sorensen HT. HbA1c in early diabetic pregnancy and pregnancy outcomes: a Danish population-based cohort study of 573 pregnancies in women with type 1 diabetes. Diabetes Care. 2006;29:2612–2616
  10. Guerin A, Nisenbaum R, Ray JG (2007) Use of maternal GHb concentration to estimate the risk of congenital anomalies in the offspring of women with prepregnancy diabetes Diabetes Care 30:1920–1925.
  11. Jensen DM, KorsholmL, Ovesen P et al (2009) Periconceptional A1C and risk of serious adverse pregnancy outcome in 933 women with type 1 diabetes Diabetes Care 32:1046–1048.
  12. Ray, JG, O'Brien, TE, Chan, WS (2001) Preconception care and the risk of congenital anomalies in the offspring of women with diabetes mellitus: a meta-analysisQJM 94(8): p. 435-44.
  13. Wahabi, HA, Alzeidan, RA, Bawazeer, GA et al (2010), Preconception care for diabetic women for improving maternal and fetal outcomes: a systematic review and meta-analysisBMC Pregnancy Childbirth 10:63(doi): p. 10.1186/1471-2393-10-63.
  14. McElduff, A, Ross, GP, Lagstrom JA et al., Pregestational diabetes and pregnancy: an Australian experience. Diabetes Care, 2005. 28(5): p. 1260-1.
  15. Zhu, H., et al., Utilisation of preconception care in women with pregestational diabetes in Western Australia. Aust N Z J Obstet Gynaecol, 2012. 52(6): p. 593-6.
  16. McElduff, A., et al., The Australasian Diabetes in Pregnancy Society consensus guidelines for the management of type 1 and type 2 diabetes in relation to pregnancy. Med J Aust, 2005. 183(7): p. 373-7.
  17. National Health and Medical Research Council, National Evidence-Based Clinical Care Guidelines for Type 1 Diabetes for Children, Adolescents and Adults 2011: Canberra.
  18. National Institute for Health and Care Excellence, Diabetes in pregnancy: Management from preconception to the postnatal period. 2015, National Institute for Health and Care Excellence: London.
  19. American Diabetes Association (2017) Standards of Medical Care in Diabetes—2017. Diabetes Care 40 (Suppl 1): S4–S5
  20. Royal Australian and New Zealand College of Obstetricians and Gynaecologists. Pre-pregnancy counselling. RANZCOG (C-Obs-3a), July 2017

p28-29 Reality Check – Dr Justin Coleman:

  1. Australian Bureau of Statistics. Census of Population and Housing - Counts of Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander Australians. 2016; Available from: http://www.abs.gov.au/AUSSTATS/abs@.nsf/Lookup/2075.0Main+Features12016?OpenDocument.
  2. National Aboriginal Community Controlled Health Organisation. About NACCHO. 2017; Available from: http://www.naccho.org.au/about/.
  3. Tudor Hart, J., The inverse care law. The Lancet. 297(7696): p. 405-412.
  4. Australian Bureau of Statistics. Australian Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander Health Survey: Biomedical Results, 2012-13. Available from: http://www.abs.gov.au/ausstats/abs@.nsf/mf/4727.0.55.003.
  5. Australian Institute of Health and Welfare, The health and welfare of Australia’s Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander peoples: 2015. 2015: Canberra.
  6. Minges, K.E., et al., Diabetes prevalence and determinants in Indigenous Australian populations: A systematic review. Diabetes Res Clin Pract, 2011. 93(2): p. 139-49.
  7. Neel, J.V., Diabetes Mellitus: A “Thrifty” Genotype Rendered Detrimental by “Progress”? American Journal of Human Genetics, 1962. 14(4): p. 353-362.
  8. Neel, J.V., Update to "The Study of Natural Selection in Primitive and Civilized Human Populations". Human Biology, 1989. 61(5/6): p. 811-823.
  9. Paradies, Y.C., M.J. Montoya, and S.M. Fullerton, Racialized genetics and the study of complex diseases: the thrifty genotype revisited. Perspect Biol Med, 2007. 50(2): p. 203-27.
  10. Australian Institute of Health and Welfare, National best practice guidelines for collecting Indigenous status in health data sets. 2010: Canberra.
  11. Coleman, J., Type 2 diabetes prevention and early detection, in National guide to a preventive health assessment for Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander people. 2012, RACGP, NACCHO.
  12. Royal Australian College of General Practitioners, Guidelines for preventive activities in general practice. 9 ed. 2016, East Melbourne.
  13. Department of Health. Australian type 2 diabetes risk assessment tool (AUSDRISK). 2016; Available from: http://www.health.gov.au/internet/main/publishing.nsf/Content/chronic-diab-prev-aus
  14. Cunningham, J., et al., Socioeconomic status and diabetes among urban Indigenous Australians aged 15-64 years in the DRUID study. Ethn Health, 2008. 13(1): p. 23-37.
  15. Royal Australian College of General Practitioners Introduction to Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander cultural awareness in general practice. Online Active Learning Module. 2015.
  16. Coleman, J., Confessions of an ordinary doctor in a centre of excellence. , in Good Practice. 2011, RACGP: Melbourne.
  17. Pharmaceutical Benefits Scheme. The Closing the Gap - PBS Co-payment Measure. 2016; Available from: http://www.pbs.gov.au/info/publication/factsheets/closing-the-gap-pbs-co-payment-measure
  18. Department of Human Services. Practice Incentives Program - Indigenous Health Incentive guidelines. 2014; Available from: https://www.humanservices.gov.au/sites/default/files/documents/indigenous-health-pip-guidelines.docx.

p32-34 The 5:2 question: Do fasting diets help diabetes?

  1. Hoddy KK, Gibbons C, Kroeger CM, Trepanowski JF, Barnosky A, Bhutani S, Gabel K, Finlayson G, Varady KA. Changes in hunger and fullness in relation to gut peptides before and after 8 weeks of alternate day fasting. Clin Nutr. 2016 Dec;35(6):1380-1385. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27062219
  2. Gibson AA, Seimon RV, Lee CM, Ayre J, Franklin J, Markovic TP, Caterson ID, Sainsbury A. Do ketogenic diets really suppress appetite? A systematic review and meta-analysis. Obes Rev. 2015 Jan;16(1):64-76. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25402637
  3. Harvie M, Howell A. Potential Benefits and Harms of Intermittent Energy Restriction and Intermittent Fasting Amongst Obese, Overweight and Normal Weight Subjects-A Narrative Review of Human and Animal Evidence.Behav Sci (Basel). 2017 Jan 19;7(1). pii: E4. doi: 10.3390/bs7010004. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/28106818
  4. Headland M, Clifton PM, Carter S, Keogh JB. Weight-Loss Outcomes: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis of Intermittent Energy Restriction Trials Lasting a Minimum of 6 Months. 2016 Jun 8;8(6). pii: E354. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27338458
  5. Parretti HM, Jebb SA, Johns DJ, Lewis AL, Christian-Brown AM, Aveyard P. Clinical effectiveness of very-low-energy diets in the management of weight loss: a systematic review and meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials. Obes Rev. 2016 Mar;17(3):225-34. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26775902
  6. Rehackova L, Arnott B, Araujo-Soares V, Adamson AA, Taylor R, Sniehotta FF. Efficacy and acceptability of very low energy diets in overweight and obese people with Type 2 diabetes mellitus: a systematic review with meta-analyses. Diabet Med. 2016 May;33(5):580-91. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26490082
  7. Olansky L. Strategies for management of intermittent fasting in patients with diabetes. Cleve Clin J Med. 2017 May;84(5):357-358. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/28530890

Further reading

  1. Monday’s Medical Myth: Low fat diets are better for weight loss. The Conversation 28th January 2013. https://theconversation.edu.au/mondays-medical-myth-low-fat-diets-are-better-for-weight-loss-11586
  2. Monday’s Medical Myth: You don’t have to be the biggest loser to achieve weight loss success. The Conversation 3rd May 2013. https://theconversation.com/you-dont-have-to-be-the-biggest-loser-to-achieve-weight-loss-success-11587
  3. Health Check: what’s the best diet for weight loss? The Conversation 24th March 2014. http://theconversation.com/health-check-whats-the-best-diet-for-weight-loss-21557
  4. Health Check: 10 ways to save 2000 kilojoules and drop a clothes size. The Conversation 16th February, 2015. https://theconversation.com/health-check-ten-ways-to-save-2-000-kilojoules-and-drop-a-clothes-size-37039
  5. Got Gout? Here’s what to eat and avoid. The Conversation November, 2015. https://theconversation.com/got-gout-heres-what-to-eat-and-avoid-50239
  6. Health Check: six tips for losing weight without fad diets. The Conversation February, 2016. https://theconversation.com/health-check-six-tips-for-losing-weight-without-fad-diets-52496
  7. Got Gallstones?Here’s what to eat and avoid. The Conversation May 5th, 2016. https://theconversation.com/got-gallstones-heres-what-to-eat-and-avoid-53229
  8. What are ‘fasting’ diets and do they help you lose weight? The Conversation, May 8th 2017. https://theconversation.com/what-are-fasting-diets-and-do-they-help-you-lose-weight-76644
  9. Do ketogenic diets help you lose weight? The Conversation 15th September 2017. https://theconversation.com/do-ketogenic-diets-help-you-lose-weight-81810