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Diabetes Management Journal August 2021 References


Severe Hypos in T1D and mid-life Cognitive Impairment

  1. Jacobson AM, Ryan CM, Brafett BH et. al Cognitive performance declines in older adults with type 1 diabetes: results from 32 years of follow-up in the DCCT and EDIC Study. The Lancet 9:7, P436-445, July 01, 2021 doi.org/10.1016/S2213-8587(21)00086-3
  2. Pain C, Severe hypos 'escalate cognitive decline' in type 1 diabetes. Ausdoc Specialist Update: Endocrinology ausdoc.com.au/specialist-update/severe-hypos-escalate-cognitive-decline-type-1-diabetes June 1, 2021

PPIs reduce HbA1c. Maybe. A little.

  1. Effects of Proton Pump Inhibitors on Glycemic Control and Incident Diabetes: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis. J.Clin Endo & Metab. doi.org/10.1210/clinem/dgab353
  2. NPS MedicineWise Proton pump inhibitors: too much of a good thing? Medicinewise Newsletter 16 March, 2015. https://www.nps.org.au/news/proton-pump-inhibitors-too-much-of-a-good-thing
  3. Mössner J. The Indications, Applications, and Risks of Proton Pump Inhibitors. Dtsch Arztebl Int. 2016 Jul 11;113(27-28):477-83. doi: 10.3238/arztebl.2016.0477. PMID: 27476707; PMCID: PMC4973002.
  4. Eusebi LH, Rabitti S, Artesiani ML, Gelli D, Montagnani M, Zagari RM, Bazzoli F. Proton pump inhibitors: Risks of long-term use. J Gastroenterol Hepatol. 2017 Jul;32(7):1295-1302. doi: 10.1111/jgh.13737. PMID: 28092694.

Tai Chi benefits people with central obesity

  1. Siu PM, Yu AP, Chin EC, Yu DS, Hui SS, Woo J, Fong DY, Wei GX, Irwin MR. Effects of Tai Chi or Conventional Exercise on Central Obesity in Middle-Aged and Older Adults : A Three-Group Randomized Controlled Trial. Ann Intern Med. 2021 Jun 1. doi: 10.7326/M20-7014. Epub ahead of print. PMID: 34058100.
  2. Huston P, McFarlane B. Health benefits of tai chi: What is the evidence? Can Fam Physician. 2016 Nov;62(11):881-890. PMID: 28661865.
  3. Lam P. Slow exercise: Tai Chi for diabetes. DMJ Feb 2020, p 22-24

Are SGLT2 inhibitors renoprotective?


Lower Bone Density in Youth with T1D

Loxton P, Narayan K, Munns CF, Craig ME. Bone Mineral Density and Type 1 Diabetes in Children and Adolescents: A Meta-analysis. Diabetes Care 2021 Jul; dc203128. https://doi.org/10.2337/dc20-3128

Lethal Mucormycosis Upsurge in India

  1. Singh AK, Singh R, Joshi SR, Misra A. Mucormycosis in COVID-19: A systematic review of cases reported worldwide and in India. Diabetes Metab Syndr. 2021;15(4):102146. doi:10.1016/j.dsx.2021.05.019
  2. Garg D, Muthu V, Sehgal IS, et al. Coronavirus Disease (Covid-19) Associated Mucormycosis (CAM): Case Report and Systematic Review of Literature. Mycopathologia. 2021;186(2):289-298. doi:10.1007/s11046-021-00528-2
  3. Kuchay, B.' Black fungus' new scare in India as second COVID wave ebbs. https://www.aljazeera.com/news/2021/6/8/black-fungus-new-scare-in-india-as-second-covid-wave-ebbs
  4. Ganguly S. Inside India's deadly mucormycosis fungus epidemic. https://www.bbc.com/news/av/world-asia-india-57643738 June 29, 2021.
  5. Roden MM, Zaoutis TE, Buchanan WL, Knudsen TA, Sarkisova TA, Schaufele RL, et al. Epidemiology and outcome of zygomycosis: a review of 929 reported casesexternal icon. Clin Infect Dis. 2005 Sep 1;41(5):634-53.
  6. Jeong W, Keighley C, Wolfe R. The epidemiology and clinical manifestations of mucormycosis: a systematic review and meta-analysis of case reports. Clin Microbiol Infect. 2019;25:26–34.
  7. Cox GM, Mucormycosis (zygomycosis) UpToDate https://www.uptodate.com/contents/mucormycosis-zygomycosis#! Accessed 30 June, 2021.
  8. Lionakis M.S., Kontoyiannis D.P. Glucocorticoids and invasive fungal infections. Lancet. 2003;362:1828–1838.
  9. Maartens G., Wood M.J. The clinical presentation and diagnosis of invasive fungal infections. J Antimicrob Chemother. 1991;28(13–22):17–44.


p10-14 Diabetes Remission

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  2. Nagi D, Hambling C, Taylor R. Remission of type 2 diabetes: a position statement from the Association of British Clinical Diabetologists (ABCD) and the Primary Care Diabetes Society (PCDS). British Journal of Diabetes 2019;19:73-6.
  3. Eckel RH, Kahn SE, Ferrannini E, et al. Obesity and type 2 diabetes: what can be unified and what needs to be individualized? J Clin Endocrinol Metab 2011;96:1654-63.
  4. Taylor R, Al-Mrabeh A, Sattar N. Understanding the mechanisms of reversal of type 2 diabetes. The lancet 2019;7:726-36.
  5. Magkos F, Fraterrigo G, Yoshino J, et al. Effects of Moderate and Subsequent Progressive Weight Loss on Metabolic Function and Adipose Tissue Biology in Humans with Obesity. Cell Metab 2016;23:591-601.
  6. Gavin JR, III, Alberti KGMM, Davidson MB, DeFronzo RA, et al. Report of the Expert Committee on the Diagnosis and Classification of Diabetes Mellitus. Diabetes Care 1997;20:1183-97.
  7. Kalra S, Singal A, Lathia T. What’s in a Name? Redefining Type 2 Diabetes Remission. Diabetes Therapy 2021;12:647-54.
  8. Evert AB, Dennison M, Gardner CD, et al. Nutrition Therapy for Adults With Diabetes or Prediabetes: A Consensus Report. Diabetes Care 2019;42:731-54.
  9. Batterham RL, Cummings DE. Mechanisms of Diabetes Improvement Following Bariatric/Metabolic Surgery. Diabetes Care 2016;39:893-901.
  10. Henry RR, Scheaffer L, Olefsky JM. Glycemic effects of intensive caloric restriction and isocaloric refeeding in noninsulin-dependent diabetes mellitus. J Clin Endocrinol Metab 1985;61:917-25.
  11. World Health Organization Global Report on Diabetes. [(accessed on 29 April 2021)];2016 Available online: https://www.who.int/diabetes/publications/grd-2016/en/.
  12. Bistrian BR, Blackburn GL, Flatt JP, Sizer J, Scrimshaw NS, Sherman M. Nitrogen metabolism and insulin requirements in obese diabetic adults on a protein-sparing modified fast. Diabetes 1976;25:494-504.
  13. Hughes TA, Gwynne JT, Switzer BR, Herbst C, White G. Effects of caloric restriction and weight loss on glycemic control, insulin release and resistance, and atherosclerotic risk in obese patients with type II diabetes mellitus. Am J Med 1984;77:7-17.
  14. Paisey RB, Harvey P, Rice S, et al. An intensive weight loss programme in established type 2 diabetes and controls: effects on weight and atherosclerosis risk factors at 1 year. Diabet Med 1998;15:73-9.
  15. Jackness C, Karmally W, Febres G, et al. Very Low–Calorie Diet Mimics the Early Beneficial Effect of Roux-en-Y Gastric Bypass on Insulin Sensitivity and β-Cell Function in Type 2 Diabetic Patients. Diabetes 2013;62:3027-32.
  16. Lim EL, Hollingsworth KG, Aribisala BS, Chen MJ, Mathers JC, Taylor R. Reversal of type 2 diabetes: normalisation of beta cell function in association with decreased pancreas and liver triacylglycerol. Diabetologia 2011;54:2506-14.
  17. Rahier J, Guiot Y, Goebbels RM, Sempoux C, Henquin JC. Pancreatic beta-cell mass in European subjects with type 2 diabetes. Diabetes Obes Metab 2008;10 Suppl 4:32-42.
  18. Obesity Management for the Treatment of Type 2 Diabetes: Standards of Medical Care in Diabetes. Diabetes Care 2019;42:S81-S9.
  19. Steven S, Hollingsworth KG, Al-Mrabeh A, et al. Very Low-Calorie Diet and 6 Months of Weight Stability in Type 2 Diabetes: Pathophysiological Changes in Responders and Nonresponders. Diabetes Care 2016;39:808-15.
  20. Ades PA, Savage PD, Marney AM, Harvey J, Evans KA. Remission of recently diagnosed type 2 diabetes mellitus with weight loss and exercise. J Cardiopulm Rehabil Prev 2015;35:193-7.
  21. Gregg EW, Chen H, Wagenknecht LE, et al. Association of an intensive lifestyle intervention with remission of type 2 diabetes. JAMA 2012;308:2489-96.
  22. Zhyzhneuskaya SV, Al-Mrabeh A, Peters C, et al. Time Course of Normalization of Functional β-Cell Capacity in the Diabetes Remission Clinical Trial After Weight Loss in Type 2 Diabetes. Diabetes Care 2020;43:813-20.
  23. Gow ML, Baur LA, Johnson NA, Cowell CT, Garnett SP. Reversal of type 2 diabetes in youth who adhere to a very-low-energy diet: a pilot study. Diabetologia 2017;60:406-15.
  24. Mottalib A, Sakr M, Shehabeldin M, Hamdy O. Diabetes Remission after Nonsurgical Intensive Lifestyle Intervention in Obese Patients with Type 2 Diabetes. J Diabetes Res 2015;2015:468704-.
  25. Lean ME, Leslie WS, Barnes AC, et al. Primary care-led weight management for remission of type 2 diabetes (DiRECT): an open-label, cluster-randomised trial. Lancet 2018;391:541-51.
  26. Ryan DH, Espeland MA, Foster GD, et al. Look AHEAD (Action for Health in Diabetes): design and methods for a clinical trial of weight loss for the prevention of cardiovascular disease in type 2 diabetes. Control Clin Trials 2003;24:610-28.
  27. Lean MEJ, Leslie WS, Barnes AC, et al. Durability of a primary care-led weight-management intervention for remission of type 2 diabetes: 2-year results of the DiRECT open-label, cluster-randomised trial. Lancet Diabetes Endocrinol 2019;7:344-55.
  28. Taylor R, Al-Mrabeh A, Zhyzhneuskaya S, et al. Remission of Human Type 2 Diabetes Requires Decrease in Liver and Pancreas Fat Content but Is Dependent upon Capacity for β Cell Recovery. Cell Metab 2018;28:547-56.e3.
  29. Samanta A, Burden AC, Jones GR, Clarkson L. The effect of short term intensive insulin therapy in non-insulin-dependent diabetics who had failed on sulphonylurea therapy. Diabetes research (Edinburgh, Scotland) 1986;3:269-71.
  30. Ilkova H, Glaser B, Tunçkale A, Bagriaçik N, Cerasi E. Induction of Long-Term Glycemic Control in Newly Diagnosed Type 2 Diabetic Patients by Transient Intensive Insulin Treatment. Diabetes Care 1997;20:1353-6.
  31. Kramer CK, Zinman B, Retnakaran R. Short-term intensive insulin therapy in type 2 diabetes mellitus: a systematic review and meta-analysis. Lancet Diabetes Endocrinol 2013;1:28-34.
  32. McInnes N, Hall S, Sultan F, et al. Remission of Type 2 Diabetes Following a Short-term Intervention With Insulin Glargine, Metformin, and Dapagliflozin. The Journal of Clinical Endocrinology & Metabolism 2020;105:2532-40.
  33. McInnes N, Smith A, Otto R, et al. Piloting a Remission Strategy in Type 2 Diabetes: Results of a Randomized Controlled Trial. J Clin Endocrinol Metab 2017;102:1596-605.
  34. le Roux CW, Astrup A, Fujioka K, et al. 3 years of liraglutide versus placebo for type 2 diabetes risk reduction and weight management in individuals with prediabetes: a randomised, double-blind trial. Lancet 2017;389:1399-409.
  35. Davies M, Færch L, Jeppesen OK, et al. Semaglutide 2·4 mg once a week in adults with overweight or obesity, and type 2 diabetes (STEP 2): a randomised, double-blind, double-dummy, placebo-controlled, phase 3 trial. Lancet 2021;397:971-84.
  36. Retnakaran R, Kramer CK, Choi H, Swaminathan B, Zinman B. Liraglutide and the preservation of pancreatic β-cell function in early type 2 diabetes: the LIBRA trial. Diabetes care 2014;37:3270-8.
  37. Shi X, Shi Y, Chen N, et al. Effect of exenatide after short-time intensive insulin therapy on glycaemic remission maintenance in type 2 diabetes patients: a randomized controlled trial. Scientific reports 2017;7:2383.
  38. Haider KS, Haider A, Saad F, et al. Remission of type 2 diabetes following long-term treatment with injectable testosterone undecanoate in patients with hypogonadism and type 2 diabetes: 11-year data from a real-world registry study. Diabetes Obes Metab 2020;22:2055-68.
  39. Sjostrom L, Peltonen M, Jacobson P, et al. Association of bariatric surgery with long-term remission of type 2 diabetes and with microvascular and macrovascular complications. JAMA 2014;311:2297-304.
  40. Purnell JQ, Dewey EN, Laferrere B, et al. Diabetes Remission Status During Seven-year Follow-up of the Longitudinal Assessment of Bariatric Surgery Study. J Clin Endocrinol Metab 2021;106:774-88.
  41. Jans A, Naslund I, Ottosson J, Szabo E, Naslund E, Stenberg E. Duration of type 2 diabetes and remission rates after bariatric surgery in Sweden 2007-2015: A registry-based cohort study. PLoS Med 2019;16:e1002985.
  42. Schauer PR, Bhatt DL, Kirwan JP, et al. Bariatric Surgery versus Intensive Medical Therapy for Diabetes - 5-Year Outcomes. N Engl J Med 2017;376:641-51.

p17 – 19 GLP-1 Receptor Agonists

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  3. Practitioners TRACoG. Management of type 2 diabetes: A handbook for general practice. 100 Wellington Parade 1. East Melbourne, Victoria 3002: The Royal Australian College of General Practitioners Ltd; 2020.
  4. Hare KJ, Vilsbøll T, Asmar M, Deacon CF, Knop FK, Holst JJ. The glucagonostatic and insulinotropic effects of glucagon-like peptide 1 contribute equally to its glucose-lowering action. Diabetes. 2010;59(7):1765-70.
  5. Yu M, Benjamin M, Srinivasan S, Morin E, Shishatskaya E, Schwendeman S, et al. Battle of GLP-1 delivery technologies. Advanced drug delivery reviews. 2018;130.
  6. Gentile S, Strollo F, Ceriello A, Group A-OITS. Lipodystrophy in Insulin-Treated Subjects and Other Injection-Site Skin Reactions: Are We Sure Everything is Clear? Diabetes Ther. 2016;7(3):401-9.
  7. Tsapas A, Avgerinos I, Karagiannis T, Malandris K, Manolopoulos A, Andreadis P, et al. Comparative Effectiveness of Glucose-Lowering Drugs for Type 2 Diabetes: A Systematic Review and Network Meta-analysis. Ann Intern Med. 2020;173(4):278-86.
  8. Nauck MA, Meier JJ. MANAGEMENT OF ENDOCRINE DISEASE: Are all GLP-1 agonists equal in the treatment of type 2 diabetes? Eur J Endocrinol. 2019;181(6):R211-r34.
  9. Nathan DM ea. 3-CT-SY18. American Diabetes Association Scientific Sessions; June 25-292021.
  10. Alexopoulos AS, Buse JB. Initial injectable therapy in type 2 diabetes: Key considerations when choosing between glucagon-like peptide 1 receptor agonists and insulin. Metabolism. 2019;98:104-11.
  11. Zhang F, Tang L, Zhang Y, Lü Q, Tong N. Glucagon-like peptide-1 mimetics, optimal for Asian type 2 diabetes patients with and without overweight/obesity: meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials. Scientific reports. 2017;7(1):15997.
  12. Htike Z, Zaccardi F, Chatterjee S, Khunti K, Davies M, editors. Glucagon like peptide-1 receptor agonist (GLP-1RA) therapy in management of type 2 diabetes: choosing the right agent for individualised care2016.
  13. Whitmore C. Type 2 diabetes and obesity in adults. Br J Nurs. 2010;19(14):880, 2-6.
  14. Courtney H, Nayar R, Rajeswaran C, Jandhyala R. Long-term management of type 2 diabetes with glucagon-like peptide-1 receptor agonists. Diabetes Metab Syndr Obes. 2017;10:79-87.
  15. Nauck MA, Niedereichholz U, Ettler R, Holst JJ, Orskov C, Ritzel R, et al. Glucagon-like peptide 1 inhibition of gastric emptying outweighs its insulinotropic effects in healthy humans. Am J Physiol. 1997;273(5):E981-8.
  16. Monami M, Dicembrini I, Marchionni N, Rotella CM, Mannucci E. Effects of Glucagon-Like Peptide-1 Receptor Agonists on Body Weight: A Meta-Analysis. Exp Diabetes Res. 2012;2012:672658.
  17. Lingvay I, Hansen T, Macura S, Marre M, Nauck MA, de la Rosa R, et al. Superior weight loss with once-weekly semaglutide versus other glucagon-like peptide-1 receptor agonists is independent of gastrointestinal adverse events. BMJ Open Diabetes Research & Care. 2020;8(2):e001706.
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  19. Cosentino F, Ceriello A, Baeres FMM, Fioretto P, Garber A, Stough WG, et al. Addressing cardiovascular risk in type 2 diabetes mellitus: a report from the European Society of Cardiology Cardiovascular Roundtable. European Heart Journal. 2018;40(34):2907-19.
  20. Honigberg MC, Chang LS, McGuire DK, Plutzky J, Aroda VR, Vaduganathan M. Use of Glucagon-Like Peptide-1 Receptor Agonists in Patients With Type 2 Diabetes and Cardiovascular Disease: A Review. JAMA Cardiol. 2020;5(10):1182-90.
  21. Zelniker TA, Wiviott SD, Raz I, Im K, Goodrich EL, Furtado RHM, et al. Comparison of the Effects of Glucagon-Like Peptide Receptor Agonists and Sodium-Glucose Cotransporter 2 Inhibitors for Prevention of Major Adverse Cardiovascular and Renal Outcomes in Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus. Circulation. 2019;139(17):2022-31.
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  23. Owens DR, Monnier L, Hanefeld M. A review of glucagon-like peptide-1 receptor agonists and their effects on lowering postprandial plasma glucose and cardiovascular outcomes in the treatment of type 2 diabetes mellitus. Diabetes, Obesity and Metabolism. 2017;19(12):1645-54.
  24. Ahmann AJ, Capehorn M, Charpentier G, Dotta F, Henkel E, Lingvay I, et al. Efficacy and Safety of Once-Weekly Semaglutide Versus Exenatide ER in Subjects With Type 2 Diabetes (SUSTAIN 3): A 56-Week, Open-Label, Randomized Clinical Trial. Diabetes Care. 2018;41(2):258.
  25. Witkowski M, Wilkinson L, Webb N, Weids A, Glah D, Vrazic H. A Systematic Literature Review and Network Meta-Analysis Comparing Once-Weekly Semaglutide with Other GLP-1 Receptor Agonists in Patients with Type 2 Diabetes Previously Receiving Basal Insulin. Diabetes Therapy. 2018;9(3):1233-51.
  26. Australian Department of Health: Therapeutic Goods Administration. Australian Public Assessment Report for exenatide; Proprietary Product Name: Byetta [Internet]: Therapeutic Goods Administration; 2013 Jun [cited 2021 May 19]. Available from: https://www.tga.gov.au/sites/default/files/auspar-exenatide-130603.pdf.
  27. Kolterman OG, Kim DD, Shen L, Ruggles JA, Nielsen LL, Fineman MS, et al. Pharmacokinetics, pharmacodynamics, and safety of exenatide in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus. Am J Health Syst Pharm. 2005;62(2):173-81.
  28. Australian Department of Health: Therapeutic Goods Administration. Australian Public Assessment Report for Liraglutide; Proprietary Product Name: Victoza, Saxenda [Internet]: Therapeutic Goods Administration; 2019 Apr [cited 2020 Jul 29]. Available from: https://www.tga.gov.au/sites/default/files/auspar-liraglutide-190429.pdf.
  29. Agersø H, Jensen LB, Elbrønd B, Rolan P, Zdravkovic M. The pharmacokinetics, pharmacodynamics, safety and tolerability of NN2211, a new long-acting GLP-1 derivative, in healthy men. Diabetologia. 2002;45(2):195-202.
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  32. Barrington P, Chien JY, Tibaldi F, Showalter HD, Schneck K, Ellis B. LY2189265, a long-acting glucagon-like peptide-1 analogue, showed a dose-dependent effect on insulin secretion in healthy subjects. Diabetes Obes Metab. 2011;13(5):434-8.
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p20-23 Oral Health and diabetes

  1. Verhulst MJL, Loos BG, Gerdes VEA, Teeuw WJ. Evaluating all potential oral complications of diabetes mellitus. Frontiers in Endocrinology 2019;10:56.
  2. Pihlstrom BL, Michalowicz BS, Johnson NW. Periodontal diseases. Lancet 2005;366(9499):1809-20.
  3. Borgnakke WS, Ylöstalo PV, Taylor GW, Genco RJ. Effect of periodontal disease on diabetes: systematic review of epidemiologic observational evidence. J Clin Periodontol 2013;40(Suppl 14):S135-52.
  4. Graziani F, Gennai S, Solini A, Petrini M. A systematic review and meta-analysis of epidemiologic observational evidence on the effect of periodontitis on diabetes; an update of the EFP-AAP review. J Clin Periodontol 2018;45(2):167-87.
  5. Borgnakke WS. Modifiable risk factors for periodontitis and diabetes. Curr Oral Health Rep 2016;3(3):254-69.
  6. International Diabetes Federation (IDF). IDF Diabetes Atlas. 9th ed. International Diabetes Federation (IDF), 2019:176. Available: https://www.diabetesatlas.org/en/.
  7. Borgnakke WS. “Non-modifiable” risk factors for periodontitis and diabetes. Curr Oral Health Rep 2016;3(3):270-81.
  8. Genco RJ, Borgnakke WS. Risk factors for periodontal disease. Periodontol 2000 2013;62(1):59-94.
  9. Genco RJ, Borgnakke WS. Diabetes as a potential risk for periodontitis: association studies. Periodontology 2000 2020;83(1):40-5.
  10. Kocher T, König J, Borgnakke WS, Pink C, Meisel P. Periodontal complications of hyperglycemia/diabetes mellitus: epidemiologic complexity and clinical challenge. Periodontol 2000 2018;78(1):59-97.
  11. Miller A, Ouanounou A. Diagnosis, management, and dental considerations for the diabetic patient. J Can Dent Assoc 2020;86:k8.
  12. Wu CZ, Yuan YH, Liu HH, Li SS, Zhang BW, Chen W, An ZJ, Chen SY, Wu YZ, Han B, Li CJ, Li LJ. Epidemiologic relationship between periodontitis and type 2 diabetes mellitus. BMC Oral Health 2020;20(1):204.
  13. Löe H. Periodontal disease. The sixth complication of diabetes mellitus. Diabetes Care 1993;16(1):329-34.
  14. Poudel P, Griffiths R, Wong VW, Arora A, George A. Knowledge and practices of diabetes care providers in oral health care and their potential role in oral health promotion: a scoping review. Diabetes Res Clin Pract 2017;130:266-77.
  15. Poudel P, Griffiths R, Wong VW, Arora A, Flack JR, Khoo CL, George A. Perceptions and practices of general practitioners on providing oral health care to people with diabetes - a qualitative study. BMC Family Practice 2020;21(1):34.
  16. Poudel P, Griffiths R, Wong VW, et al. Perceptions and practices of diabetes educators in providing oral health care: a qualitative study. Diabetes Educ 2018;44(5):454-64.
  17. Lima DLF, Carneiro S, Barbosa FTS, Saintrain MVL, Moizan JAH, Doucet J. Salivary flow and xerostomia in older patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus. PLoS One 2017;12(8):e0180891.
  18. Babu NA, Masthan KMK, Bhattacharjee T, Elumalai M. Saliva - the key regulator of oral changes in diabetes patients. Int J Pharm Sci Res 2014;5(7):2579-83.
  19. Carramolino-Cuellar E, Lauritano D, Silvestre FJ, Carinci F, Lucchese A, Silvestre-Rangil J. Salivary flow and xerostomia in patients with type 2 diabetes. J Oral Pathol Med 2018;47(5):526-30.
  20. Tiisanoja A, Syrjala AH, Kullaa A, Ylöstalo P. Anticholinergic burden and dry mouth in middle-aged people. JDR Clin Trans Res 2020;5(1):62-70.
  21. Simon LE, Karhade DS, Tobey ML. Oral health status of hospitalized patients with type 2 diabetes. Diabetes Spectr 2019;32(3):ds180089.
  22. Wade WG. Resilience of the oral microbiome. Periodontol 2000 2021;86(1):113-22.
  23. Marcott S, Dewan K, Kwan M, Baik F, Lee YJ, Sirjani D. Where dysphagia begins: polypharmacy and xerostomia. Fed Pract 2020;37(5):234-41.
  24. Goguta D, Lungeanu D, Jivanescu A. Removable dentures treatment satisfaction of patients with type-2 diabetes. Rom J Diabetes Nutr Metab Dis 2018;25(3):277-82.
  25. Beheshti M, Badner V, Shah P, Margulis KS, Yeroshalmi F. Association of diabetes and dental caries among U.S. adolescents in the NHANES dataset. Pediatr Dent 2021;43(2):123-8.
  26. Swapna LA, Koppolu P, Prince J. Oral health in diabetic and nondiabetic patients with chronic kidney disease. Saudi J Kidney Dis Transpl 2017;28(5):1099-105.
  27. Cabanillas-Balsera D, Martin-Gonzalez J, Montero-Miralles P, Sanchez-Dominguez B, Jimenez-Sanchez MC, Segura-Egea JJ. Association between diabetes and nonretention of root filled teeth: a systematic review and meta-analysis. Int Endod J 2019;52(3):297-306.
  28. Rios-Osorio N, Munoz-Alvear HD, Montoya Canon S, Restrepo-Mendez S, Aguilera-Rojas SE, Jimenez-Pena O, Garcia-Perdomo HA. Association between type 2 diabetes mellitus and the evolution of endodontic pathology. Quintessence Int 2020;51(2):100-7.
  29. Monje A, Catena A, Borgnakke WS. Association between diabetes mellitus/hyperglycaemia and peri-implant diseases: systematic review and meta-analysis. J Clin Periodontol 2017;44(6):636-48.
  30. Jhugroo C, Divakar DD, Jhugroo P, Al-Amri SAS, Alahmari AD, Vijaykumar S, Parine NR. Characterization of oral mucosa lesions and prevalence of yeasts in diabetic patients: a comparative study. Microb Pathog 2019;126:363-7.
  31. Borgnakke WS, Anderson PF, Shannon C, Jivanescu A. Is there a relationship between oral health and diabetic neuropathy? Curr Diab Rep 2015;15(11):93.
  32. Luo H, Pan W, Sloan F, Feinglos M, Wu B. Forty-year trends in tooth loss among american adults with and without diabetes mellitus: an age-period-cohort analysis. Prev Chronic Dis 2015;12:E211.
  33. Ramos-Garcia P, Roca-Rodriguez MDM, Aguilar-Diosdado M, Gonzalez-Moles MA. Diabetes mellitus and oral cancer/oral potentially malignant disorders: a systematic review and meta-analysis. Oral Dis 2021;27(3):404-21.
  34. Ito R, Huang JJ, Hsieh WC, et al. Identification of predisposing factors for osteonecrosis of the jaw after marginal mandibulectomy in the surgical management of oral squamous cell carcinoma. J Surg Oncol 2018;117(4):781-7.
  35. Kim JY, Song HC, Jee HG. Refractory healing after surgical therapy of osteonecrosis of the jaw: associated risk factors in aged patients. Clin Interv Aging 2019;14:797-804.
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  40. Borgnakke WS. IDF Diabetes Atlas: diabetes and oral health - a two-way relationship of clinical importance. Diabetes Res Clin Pract 2019:107839.
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  43. Chapple IL, Genco RJ, Working Group 2 of Joint EFP/AAP Workshop, [Berglundh T, Borgnakke W, Eickholz P, Engebretson S, Genco R, Graves D, Grossi S, Hasturk H, Kocher T, Lalla E, Lamster I, Lang N, Mealey B, Meyle J, Nesse W, Paquette D, Preshaw P, Taylor G, Taylor J, Van der Velden U, Walter C, Ylöstalo P]. Diabetes and periodontal diseases: consensus report of the Joint EFP/AAP Workshop on Periodontitis and Systemic Diseases. J Clin Periodontol 2013;40(Suppl 14):S106-12.
  44. Sanz M, Ceriello A, Buysschaert M, Chapple I, Demmer RT, Graziani F, Herrera D, Jepsen S, Lione L, Madianos P, Mathur M, Montanya E, Shapira L, Tonetti M, Vegh D. Scientific evidence on the links between periodontal diseases and diabetes: consensus report and guidelines of the joint workshop on periodontal diseases and diabetes by the International Diabetes Federation and the European Federation of Periodontology. J Clin Periodontol 2018;45(2):138-49.
  45. Chen YF, Zhan Q, Wu CZ, Yuan YH, Chen W, Yu FY, Li Y, Li LJ. Baseline HbA1c level influences the effect of periodontal therapy on glycemic control in people with type 2 diabetes and periodontitis: a systematic review on randomized controlled trials. Diabetes Ther 2021;12(5):1249-78.
  46. Poudel P, Griffiths R, Wong VW, Arora A, Flack JR, Khoo CL, George A. Oral health knowledge, attitudes and care practices of people with diabetes: a systematic review. BMC Public Health 2018;18(1):577.
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  50. American Diabetes Association. 4. Comprehensive medical evaluation and assessment of comorbidities: standards of medical care in diabetes - 2021. Diabetes Care 2021;44(Suppl 1):S40-52.
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p24-26 DKA in Children with new T1D. Don’t miss it!

  1. Australian Institute of Health and Welfare. Diabetes. Cat. no. CVD 82. Canberra: AIHW; 2020. Viewed 08 December 2020, https://www.aihw.gov.au/reports/diabetes/diabetes
  2. Cherubini V, Grimsmann JM, Akesson K, Birkebaek NH, Cinek O, Dovc K, et al. Temporal trends in diabetic ketoacidosis at diagnosis of paediatric type 1 diabetes between 2006 and 2016: results from 13 countries in three continents. Diabetologia. 2020;63(8):1530-41.
  3. Wolfsdorf JI, Glaser N, Agus M, Fritsch M, Hanas R, Rewers A, et al. ISPAD Clinical Practice Consensus Guidelines 2018: Diabetic ketoacidosis and the hyperglycemic hyperosmolar state. Pediatr Diabetes. 2018;19 Suppl 27:155-77.
  4. Cameron FJ, Northam EA, Ryan CM. The effect of type 1 diabetes on the developing brain. The Lancet Child & Adolescent Health. 2019;3(6):427-36.
  5. Cameron FJ, Scratch SE, Nadebaum C, Northam EA, Koves I, Jennings J, et al. Neurological consequences of diabetic ketoacidosis at initial presentation of type 1 diabetes in a prospective cohort study of children. Diabetes Care. 2014;37(6):1554-62.
  6. Bui H, To T, Stein R, Fung K, Daneman D. Is diabetic ketoacidosis at disease onset a result of missed diagnosis? J Pediatr. 2010;156(3):472-7.
  7. Mayer-Davis EJ, Kahkoska AR, Jefferies C, Dabelea D, Balde N, Gong CX, et al. ISPAD Clinical Practice Consensus Guidelines 2018: Definition, epidemiology, and classification of diabetes in children and adolescents. Pediatr Diabetes. 2018;19 Suppl 27:7-19.
  8. Usher-Smith JA, Thompson MJ, Sharp SJ, Walter FM. Factors associated with the presence of diabetic ketoacidosis at diagnosis of diabetes in children and young adults: a systematic review. BMJ. 2011;343:d4092.
  9. Lawrence C, Seckold R, Smart C, King BR, Howley P, Feltrin R, et al. Increased paediatric presentations of severe diabetic ketoacidosis in an Australian tertiary centre during the COVID-19 pandemic. Diabet Med. 2021;38(1):e14417.
  10. King BR, Howard NJ, Verge CF, Jack MM, Govind N, Jameson K, et al. A diabetes awareness campaign prevents diabetic ketoacidosis in children at their initial presentation with type 1 diabetes. Pediatr Diabetes. 2012;13(8):647-51.

p28-30 Reality Check: Chasing unicorns: How I support people with diabetes in general practice

  1. Murray SW, McKelvey S, Heseltine TD, Henderson G, Singh J, Unwin D, Brady AJ. The “discordant doppelganger dilemma”: SGLT2i mimics therapeutic carbohydrate restriction-food choice first over pharma?. Journal of Human Hypertension. 2021 Feb 9:1-8.
  2. Diabetes Australia https://www.diabetesaustralia.com.au/about-diabetes/type-2-diabetes/ Accessed 7/4/21. Since March 2021, this site has changed the wording to T2D “is often a progressive condition.”
  3. Karter AJ, Nundy S, Parker MM, Moffet HH, Huang ES. Incidence of remission in adults with type 2 diabetes: the diabetes & aging study. Diabetes Care. 2014 Dec 1;37(12):3188-95.
  4. Gregg EW, Chen H, Wagenknecht LE, Clark JM, Delahanty LM, Bantle J, Pownall HJ, Johnson KC, Safford MM, Kitabchi AE, Pi-Sunyer FX. Association of an intensive lifestyle intervention with remission of type 2 diabetes. Jama. 2012 Dec 19;308(23):2489-96.
  5. Athinarayanan SJ, Adams RN, Hallberg SJ, McKenzie AL, Bhanpuri NH, Campbell WW, Volek JS, Phinney SD, McCarter JP. Long-term effects of a novel continuous remote care intervention including nutritional ketosis for the management of type 2 diabetes: a 2-year non-randomized clinical trial. Frontiers in endocrinology. 2019 Jun 5;10:348.
  6. Unwin D, Khalid AA, Unwin J, Crocombe D, Delon C, Martyn K, Golubic R, Ray S. Insights from a general practice service evaluation supporting a lower carbohydrate diet in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus and prediabetes: a secondary analysis of routine clinic data including HbA1c, weight and prescribing over 6 years. BMJ Nutrition, Prevention and Health, 2020;0.
  7. Willett WC, Leibel RL. Dietary fat is not a major determinant of body fat. The American journal of medicine. 2002 Dec 30;113(9):47-59.
  8. Diamond DM, O’Neill BJ, Volek JS. Low carbohydrate diet: are concerns with saturated fat, lipids, and cardiovascular disease risk justified? Current Opinion in Endocrinology, Diabetes and Obesity. 2020 Oct 1;27(5):291-300.
  9. Astrup A, Magkos F, Bier DM, Brenna JT, de Oliveira Otto MC, Hill JO, King JC, Mente A, Ordovas JM, Volek JS, Yusuf S. Saturated fats and health: A reassessment and proposal for food-based recommendations: JACC state-of-the-art review. Journal of the American College of Cardiology. 2020 Jun 17.
  10. Webster CC, Murphy TE, Larmuth KM, Noakes TD, Smith JA. Diet, diabetes status, and personal experiences of individuals with type 2 diabetes who self-selected and followed a low carbohydrate high fat diet. Diabetes, metabolic syndrome and obesity: targets and therapy. 2019;12:2567.
  11. RACGP and Diabetes Australia Management of type T2 diabetes: A handbook for general practice. East Melbourne, Vic. RACGP, July 2020.
  12. https://www.dietdoctor.com/
  13. https://lowcarbdownunder.com.au/videos/
  14. Marsh, K. Are low carb diets really the holy grail? Diabetes Management Journal May 2021; 32
  15. Snorgaard O, Poulsen GM, Andersen HK, Astrup A. Systematic review and meta-analysis of dietary carbohydrate restriction in patients with type 2 diabetes. BMJ Open Diabetes Res Care. 2017;5(1). doi:10.1136/bmjdrc-2016-000354
  16. McArdle PD, Greenfield SM, Rilstone SK, Narendran P, Haque MS, Gill PS. Carbohydrate restriction for glycaemic control in Type 2 diabetes: a systematic review and meta-analysis. Diabet Med. 2019;36(3):335-348. doi:10.1111/dme.13862
  17. Sainsbury E, Kizirian N V., Partridge SR, Gill T, Colagiuri S, Gibson AA. Effect of dietary carbohydrate restriction on glycemic control in adults with diabetes: A systematic review and meta-analysis. Diabetes Res Clin Pract. 2018;139:239-252. doi:10.1016/j.diabres.2018.02.026
  18. Silverii GA, Botarelli L, Dicembrini I, et al. Low-carbohydrate diets and type 2 diabetes treatment: a meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials. Acta Diabetol. 2020;57(11):1375-1382. doi:10.1007/s00592-020-01568-8
  19. Jardine MA, Kahleova H, Levin SM, Ali Z, Trapp CB, Barnard ND. Perspective: Plant-Based Eating Pattern for Type 2 Diabetes Prevention and Treatment: Efficacy, Mechanisms, and Practical Considerations. Adv Nutr. 2021 Jun 10:nmab063. doi: 10.1093/advances/nmab063. Epub ahead of print. PMID: 34113961.

p32 – 34 Food Stuff: Caring for people with T1D and disordered eating or eating disorders

  1. Cefalu WT, Berg EG, Saraco M, Petersen MP, Uelmen S, Robinson S, et al. Children and Adolescents: Standards of Medical Care in Diabetes-2019. Diabetes Care. 2019;42:S148-S64.
  2. Phelan H, Lange K, Cengiz E, Gallego P, Majaliwa E, Pelicand J, et al. ISPAD Clinical Practice Consensus Guidelines 2018: Diabetes education in children and adolescents. Pediatr Diabetes. 2018;19 Suppl 27:75-83.
  3. Beckles ZL, Edge JA, Mugglestone MA, Murphy MS, Wales JK, Guideline Development G. Diagnosis and management of diabetes in children and young people: summary of updated NICE guidance. BMJ (Clinical research ed). 2016;352:i139.
  4. Oldham-Cooper R, Semple C. Prevention and early help for eating disorders in young people with type 1 diabetes. Clinical Child Psychology and Psychiatry. 2021.
  5. Araia E, Hendrieckx C, Skinner T, Pouwer F, Speight J, King RM. Gender differences in disordered eating behaviors and body dissatisfaction among adolescents with type 1 diabetes: Results from diabetes MILES youth-Australia. Int J Eat Disord. 2017;50(10):1183-93.
  6. Ricciardelli LA, McCabe MP. A biopsychosocial model of disordered eating and the pursuit of muscularity in adolescent boys. Psychol Bull. 2004;130(2):179-205.
  7. Broadley MM, Zaremba N, Andrew B, Ismail K, Treasure J, White MJ, et al. 25 Years of psychological research investigating disordered eating in people with diabetes: what have we learnt? Diabetic medicine : a journal of the British Diabetic Association. 2020;37(3):401-8.
  8. Young V, Eiser C, Johnson B, Brierley S, Epton T, Elliott J, et al. Eating problems in adolescents with Type 1 diabetes: a systematic review with meta-analysis. Diabetic medicine : a journal of the British Diabetic Association. 2013;30(2):189-98.
  9. Wisting L, Skrivarhaug T, Dahl-Jorgensen K, Ro O. Prevalence of disturbed eating behavior and associated symptoms of anxiety and depression among adult males and females with type 1 diabetes. Journal of Eating Disorders. 2018;6.
  10. Jones JM, Lawson ML, Daneman D, Olmsted MP, Rodin G. Eating disorders in adolescent females with and without type 1 diabetes: cross sectional study. BMJ (Clinical research ed). 2000;320(7249):1563-6.
  11. Amer Diabet A. Children and Adolescents: Standards of Medical Care in Diabetes-2020. Diabetes Care. 2020;43:S163-S82.
  12. Araia E, King RM, Pouwer F, Speight J, Hendrieckx C. Psychological correlates of disordered eating in youth with type 1 diabetes: Results from diabetes MILES Youth-Australia. Pediatric Diabetes. 2020;21(4):664-72.
  13. d'Emden H, McDermott B, D'Silva N, Dover T, Ewais T, Gibbons K, et al. Psychosocial screening and management of young people aged 18-25 years with diabetes. Submitted. 2016.
  14. Pursey KM, Hart M, Jenkins L, McEvoy M, Smart CE. Screening and identification of disordered eating in people with type 1 diabetes: A systematic review. J Diabetes Complications. 2020;34(4):107522.

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